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1 July 2008 Forty-Ninth Supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-List of North American Birds
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INTRODUCTION

This is the eighth Supplement since publication of the 7th edition of the Check-list of North American Birds (American Ornithologists' Union [AOU] 1998). It summarizes decisions made by the AOU's Committee on Classification and Nomenclature–North and Middle America between 1 January and 31 December 2007. The Committee has continued to operate in the manner outlined in the 42nd Supplement (AOU 2000). Kevin Winker became a member of the Committee in 2007. Changes in this Supplement fall into the following categories: (1) one genus (Creagrus) and three species (Creagrus furcatus, Phylloscopus proregulus, and Turdus philomelos) are added to the main list (including one transferred from the Appendix) because of new distributional information; (2) one species is removed from the list (Buteogallus subtilis) by being merged with another on the list; (3) two species are changed by being split from extralimital species (Anas zonorhyncha and Nonnula frontalis); (4) six genera are added (Helicolestes, Chroicocephalus, Hydrocoloeus, Leucophaeus, Epinecrophylla, and Magumma) and one is replaced (Pyrilia) because of generic splits; (5) two genera (Lysurus and Buarremon) are lost by merger (with Arremon); (6) 18 scientific names are changed by transfer from one genus to another (Helicolestes hamatus, Chroicocephalus philadelphia, C. cirrocephalus, C. ridibundus, Hydrocoloeus minutus, Leucophaeus modestus, L. atricilla, L. pipixcan, Pyrilia pyrilia, P. haematotis, Colaptes rubiginosus, C. auricularis, Epinecrophylla fulviventris, Arremon crassirostris, A. brunneinucha, A. virenticeps, A. torquatus, and Magumma parva); (7) 13 English names are changed (Phoenicopterus ruber becomes American Flamingo, two species of Colibri become Violetear rather than Violet-ear, Goethalsia bella becomes Pirre [rather than Rufous-cheeked] Hummingbird, Cnipodectes subbrunneus becomes Brownish Twistwing rather than Brownish Flycatcher, six species of Turdus become Thrush rather than Robin, Chlorothraupis carmioli becomes Carmiol's [rather than Olive] Tanager, and Troupial becomes Venezuelan Troupial); (8) distribution statements of four species are changed by splits of extralimital taxa (Pelecanus occidentalis, Phoenicopterus ruber, Conopias albovittatus, and Icterus icterus); and (9) one generic name in the Appendix is changed (Columba goodsoni becomes Patagioenas goodsoni).

Additionally, a new classification and sequence of genera and species is adopted for gulls of the subfamily Larinae. A new sequence is adopted for the species of tinamous (Tinamidae) and for species in the genus Tangara. The flamingos (Phoenicopteridae) are moved to a position immediately following the grebes (Podicipedidae). In higher-level classification, a suborder (Eurylaimi) and family (Eurylaimidae) are added to our list for the species Sapayoa aenigma, previously incertae sedis. The family Furnariidae is divided into three subfamilies. The family Formicariidae is limited to antthrushes of the genera Formicarius and (extralimital) Chamaeza; the genus Pittasoma is transferred to the family Conopophagidae (adding a family to the Check-list area), and the genera Grallaria, Hylopezus, and Grallaricula are placed in a newly recognized family, Grallariidae.

Several of the changes in this Supplement were made so that the North and Middle American and South American (Remsen et al. 2008) lists will conform. The species changed belong to groups that are primarily South American.

Literature that provides the basis for the Committee's decisions is cited at the end of the Supplement, and citations not already in the Literature Cited of the 7th edition (with Supplements) become additions to it. An updated list of the bird species known from the AOU Check-list area can be found at  www.AOU.org/checklist/index.php3.

The following changes to the 7th edition (page numbers refer thereto) and its Supplements result from the Committee's actions:

pp. xvii–liv. Change the number in the title of the list of species to 2,048. Insert the following names in the proper position as indicated by the text of this Supplement:

  • Anas zonorhyncha Eastern Spot-billed Duck. (A)

  • Helicolestes hamatus Slender-billed Kite.

  • Creagrus furcatus Swallow-tailed Gull. (A)

  • Pyrilia haematotis Brown-hooded Parrot.

  • Pyrilia pyrilia Saffron-headed Parrot.

  • Nonnula frontalis Gray-cheeked Nunlet.

  • Colaptes rubiginosus Golden-olive Woodpecker.

  • Colaptes auricularis Gray-crowned Woodpecker.

  • EURYLAIMIDAE

  • Sclerurinae

  • Furnariinae

  • Dendrocolaptinae

  • CONOPOPHAGIDAE

  • GRALLARIIDAE

  • Epinecrophylla fulviventris Checker-throated Antwren.

  • Phylloscopus proregulus Pallas's Leaf-Warbler. (A)

  • Turdus philomelos Song Thrush. (A)

  • Magumma parva Anianiau.

Delete the following names:

  • Anas poecilorhyncha Spot-billed Duck. (A)

  • Rostrhamus hamatus Slender-billed Kite.

  • Buteogallus subtilis Mangrove Black-Hawk.

  • Pionopsitta pyrilia Saffron-headed Parrot.

  • Pionopsitta haematotis Brown-hooded Parrot.

  • Nonnula ruficapilla Gray-cheeked Nunlet.

  • Piculus rubiginosus Golden-olive Woodpecker.

  • Piculus auricularis Gray-crowned Woodpecker.

  • Myrmotherula fulviventris Checker-throated Antwren.

  • Hemignathus parvus Anianiau.

Change the generic names and position:

  • Lysurus crassirostris to Arremon crassirostris

  • Buarremon brunneinucha to Arremon brunneinucha

  • Buarremon virenticeps to Arremon virenticeps

  • Buarremon torquatus to Arremon torquatus

Change the English names of the following species:

  • Phoenicopterus ruber to American Flamingo.

  • Colibri delphinae to Brown Violetear.

  • Colibri thalassinus to Green Violetear.

  • Goethalsia bella to Pirre Hummingbird.

  • Cnipodectes subbrunneus to Brownish Twistwing.

  • Turdus nigrescens to Sooty Thrush.

  • Turdus infuscatus to Black Thrush.

  • Turdus plebejus to Mountain Thrush.

  • Turdus grayi to Clay-colored Thrush.

  • Turdus nudigenis to Bare-eyed Thrush.

  • Turdus assimilis to White-throated Thrush.

  • Chlorothraupis carmioli to Carmiol's Tanager.

  • Icterus icterus to Venezuelan Troupial.

Reverse the sequence of:

  • Nothocercus bonapartei Highland Tinamou.

  • Tinamus major Great Tinamou.

Move PHOENICOPTERIFORMES and Phoenicopterus ruber to follow PODICIPEDIFORMES.

Replace the listing of the Larinae with the following:

  • Creagrus furcatus Swallow-tailed Gull. (A)

  • Rissa tridactyla Black-legged Kittiwake.

  • Rissa brevirostris Red-legged Kittiwake.

  • Pagophila eburnea Ivory Gull.

  • Xema sabini Sabine's Gull.

  • Chroicocephalus philadelphia Bonaparte's Gull.

  • Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus Gray-hooded Gull. (A)

  • Chroicocephalus ridibundus Black-headed Gull.

  • Hydrocoloeus minutus Little Gull.

  • Rhodostethia rosea Ross's Gull.

  • Leucophaeus modestus Gray Gull. (A)

  • Leucophaeus atricilla Laughing Gull.

  • Leucophaeus pipixcan Franklin's Gull.

  • Larus belcheri Belcher's Gull. (A)

  • Larus crassirostris Black-tailed Gull. (A)

  • Larus heermanni Heermann's Gull.

  • Larus canus Mew Gull.

  • Larus delawarensis Ring-billed Gull.

  • Larus occidentalis Western Gull.

  • Larus livens Yellow-footed Gull.

  • Larus californicus California Gull.

  • Larus argentatus Herring Gull.

  • Larus michahellis Yellow-legged Gull. (A)

  • Larus thayeri Thayer's Gull.

  • Larus glaucoides Iceland Gull.

  • Larus fuscus Lesser Black-backed Gull. (N)

  • Larus schistisagus Slaty-backed Gull.

  • Larus glaucescens Glaucous-winged Gull.

  • Larus hyperboreus Glaucous Gull.

  • Larus marinus Great Black-backed Gull.

  • Larus dominicanus Kelp Gull.

Reverse the sequence of:

  • Pyrilia pyrilia Saffron-headed Parrot.

  • Pyrilia haematotis Brown-hooded Parrot.

Move Sapayoa aenigma to follow EURYLAIMIDAE.

Move the three species of Sclerurus to follow the newly inserted Sclerurinae.

Rearrange the species in Tangara to the following sequence:

  • Tangara palmeri

  • Tangara cabanisi

  • Tangara cucullata

  • Tangara larvata

  • Tangara guttata

  • Tangara fucosa

  • Tangara dowii

  • Tangara inornata

  • Tangara lavinia

  • Tangara gyrola

  • Tangara florida

  • Tangara icterocephala

p. 1. After the family Tinamidae insert the following: Notes.—The sequence of genera and species in this family is based on the phylogeny indicated by the data of (Bertelli et al. 2002) and (Bertelli and Porzecanski 2004).

Reverse the sequence of the tinamou genera (and included species) Tinamus and Nothocercus.

p. 9. Insert the Order Phoenicopteriformes and its included account, as modified below, after the account for Aechmophorus clarkii, transferring it from p. 54. Under the heading for the order, insert: Notes.—To recognize the close relationship to the order Podicipediformes shown by several genetic studies (Van Tuinen et al. 2001, Chubb 2004, Cracraft et al. 2004, Ericson et al. 2006), the Phoenicopteriformes are placed next to the Podicipediformes in the linear sequence of orders. They were formerly considered more closely related to the Ciconiiformes.

p. 17. Procellaria parkinsoni is added to the list of species known from the United States because of an accepted record off California. Add the following paragraph to the section on Distribution:

Accidental off central California (one photographed about 18 miles [29 km] off Pt. Reyes, Marin County, 1 October 2005; Stallcup and Preston 2006).

p. 31. Pelecanus thagus is recognized as distinct from P. occidentalis. No reasons were given for the merger by (Peters 1931) or subsequent authors who continued to treat them as conspecific.

In the account for P. occidentalis, delete information on the thagus group and the words "[occidentalis group]." Change Notes to read: Formerly included P. thagus Molina, 1782 [Peruvian Pelican], now considered distinct (e.g., Sibley and Monroe 1990, Ridgely and Greenfield 2001) on the basis of much larger size, differences in color of plumage and soft parts (Wetmore 1945), and absence of interbreeding.

p. 40. Ardea cinerea is added to lists of bird species known to occur in Canada and in the United States because of records in Newfoundland and the Pribilof Islands. Add the following paragraph to the section on Distribution:

Accidental in Canada (Avalon Peninsula, Newfoundland, 11 October 1996; Renner and Linegar 2007) and Alaska (St. Paul Island, Pribilofs, 1 August 1999 and 1–2 October 2007; Gibson et al., in press); a sight record for Bermuda (7 October 2005; Dobson 2005).

p. 54. Greater Flamingo of the Old World, Phoenicopterus roseus, is recognized as a species distinct from American birds, P. ruber. No convincing evidence was cited for their merger (AOU 1983).

Change the name of Phoenicopterus ruber to American Flamingo.

In the Distribution section of the account for P. ruber, delete the phrase "[ruber group]" and all information for the roseus group. Change the Notes to read: Formerly included P. roseus Pallas, 1811 [Greater Flamingo], separated on the basis of differences in color of plumage and bill, and in displays and vocalizations (Sangster 1997).

p. 54. To recognize the apparent close relationship to the order Podicipediformes shown by several genetic studies (Van Tuinen et al. 2001, Chubb 2004, Cracraft et al. 2004, Ericson et al. 2006), the order Phoenicopteriformes is moved ahead in the sequence to follow the grebes and should be moved from p. 54 to p. 9, following the account of Aechmophorus clarkii.

p. 69. Anas zonorhyncha is treated as a separate species from Anas poecilorhyncha. Replace the account of the latter with the following:

Anas zonorhyncha Swinhoe. Eastern Spot-billed Duck.

Anas zonorhyncha Swinhoe, 1866, Ibis 2 (sec. ser.):394. (Ningpo, China.)

Habitat.—Small streams and ponds.

Distribution.—Breeds from Transbaikalia and the Amur River south through the eastern half of China and winters in southeastern China.

Casual in Alaska in the Aleutians (Attu, Adak; photographs; Gibson and Byrd 2007) and on Kodiak Island (specimen; Trapp and MacIntosh 1978).

Notes.—Formerly considered conspecific with A. poecilorhyncha J. R. Forster, 1781 [Indian Spot-billed Duck] but separated by (Leader 2006) on the basis of sympatric breeding at Hong Kong in southern China.

pp. 89, 90. The genus Helicolestes, now in the synonymy of Rostrhamus, is restored for the species hamatus, because most of the evidence for merging the genera (Amadon 1964) is now suspected to be the result of convergence. Remove the citation for Helicolestes from Rostrhamus and insert it at the top of p. 90 under the heading:

Genus HELICOLESTES Bangs and Penard

Notes.—Formerly merged with the genus Rostrhamus, following (Amadon 1964), but now treated as a separate genus because of lack of evidence of relationship.

Change Rostrhamus hamatus (Temminck) to Helicolestes hamatus (Temminck). At the end of that species account, add: Notes.—Formerly treated in the genus Rostrhamus.

pp. 97–98. Buteogallus subtilis is treated as a subspecies of

B. anthracinus. Add Mangrove Forest to the Habitat section of the B. anthracinus account.

Modify the Distribution section of B. anthracinus as modified in the previous Supplement (Banks et al. 2007) by inserting "[anthracinus group]" after the words "Resident" and "accidental," and by adding "[subtilis group]" and the distribution statement now under B. subtilis to the end of the first paragraph. Change the Notes to read: Notes.—Formerly known as Black Hawk. Groups: B. anthracinus [Common Black-Hawk] and B. subtilis (Thayer and Bangs, 1905) [Mangrove Black-Hawk]. An analysis of morphological characters (Clark 2007) has shown that B. subtilis is better treated as a subspecies of B. anthracinus than as a separate species. See notes after B. gundlachii.

Delete the account for Buteogallus subtilis.

p. 184 et seq. (Pons et al. 2005) proposed a genus-level reclassification of the subfamily Larinae on the basis of studies of mitochondrial DNA; they found that the existing broadly defined genus Larus was paraphyletic. Their classification included the splitting of the present genus Larus into four genera and the merging of Rhodostethia into Hydrocoloeus. We accept that classification in principle but disagree with the merging of Rhodostethia into Hydrocoloeus. The phylogeny of Pons et al. (2005, fig. 1) also suggests that many relationships within the subfamily are best represented by a new linear arrangement of genera and species. We have accepted this new linear sequence except in the case of the white-headed gull group in Larus. Support for the perceived relationships of most species in this group is poor, and we prefer to retain the sequence of species currently in use until their relationships are better resolved.

Under the heading Subfamily LARINAE: Gulls, insert Notes.—The recognition and sequence of genera largely follows that of (Pons et al. 2005).

Remove the citations for Hydrocoloeus and Chroicocephalus from the synonymy of Larus; these will be used later for newly recognized genera. Rearrange the genera and the accounts for the species in Larinae (from the 7th edition and Supplements) as follows, with new generic names, headings, and notes inserted as indicated. The first species was previously in the Appendix and is newly placed on the main list.

Genus CREAGRUS Bonaparte

Creagrus Bonaparte, 1854, Naumannia 1854, p. 213. Type, by original designation, Larus furcatus Néboux.

Creagrus furcatus (Néboux). Swallow-tailed Gull.

Larus furcatus Néboux, 1846, Voy. Vénus, Atlas, Zool., Ois., pl. 10. (rade de Monterey, Haute-Californie [error = Galapagos Islands].)

Habitat.—Breeds on rocky islands, nesting on cliffs, crevices and caves; otherwise pelagic (feeds at night).

Distribution.—Breeds in the Galapagos Islands and Malpelo Island, Colombia.

Ranges along the Pacific coast of South America south to central Peru and, uncommonly, to central Chile. Casual well off the coast of Panama and Costa Rica (recent records documented with photos; North American Birds 60:452–454, 2006). Also reported at Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica, 14 March 2003 (North American Birds 57:415, 2003). Accidental in California (Monterey Bay, 6–8 June 1985; photo; Heindel and Garrett 1995, and west of the Farallon Islands, 3 March 1996, McCaskie and San Miguel 1999).

Genus RISSA

Rissa tridactyla Black-legged Kittiwake

Rissa brevirostris Red-legged Kittiwake

Genus PAGOPHILA

Pagophila eburnea Ivory Gull

Genus XEMA

Xema sabini Sabine's Gull

Genus CHROICOCEPHALUS Eyton, 1836

Insert the citation for this name now in the synonymy of Larus.

Insert: Notes.—Formerly included in Larus but separated on the basis of genetic data (Pons et al. 2005) that indicate that that genus would be paraphyletic if the following species were included.

Chroicocephalus philadelphia Bonaparte's Gull

Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus (Vieillot) Gray-hooded Gull

Chroicocephalus ridibundus (Linnaeus) Black-headed Gull

Genus HYDROCOLOEUS Kaup, 1829

Insert the citation for this name now in the synonymy of Larus.

Insert: Notes.—Formerly included in Larus but separated on the basis of genetic data (Pons et al. 2005) that indicate that that genus would be paraphyletic if the following species were included.

Hydrocoloeus minutus (Pallas) Little Gull

Genus RHODOSTETHIA

Notes.—Merged with Hydrocoloeus by (Pons et al. 2005).

Rhodostethia rosea Ross's Gull

Genus LEUCOPHAEUS Bruch, 1853

Leucophaeus Bruch, 1853, Journ. für Ornithol. 1853, p. 108. Type by original designation, Larus scoresbii Traill.

Notes.—Formerly included in Larus but separated on the basis of genetic data (Pons et al. 2005) that indicate that that genus would be paraphyletic if the following species were included.

Leucophaeus modestus (Tschudi) Gray Gull

Leucophaeus atricilla (Linnaeus) Laughing Gull

Leucophaeus pipixcan (Wagler) Franklin's Gull

Genus LARUS

Larus belcheri Belcher's Gull

Larus crassirostris Black-tailed Gull

Larus heermanni Heermann's Gull

Larus canus Mew Gull

Larus delawarensis Ring-billed Gull

Larus occidentalis Western Gull

Larus livens Yellow-footed Gull

Larus californicus California Gull

Larus argentatus Herring Gull

Insert at beginning of notes: Includes the North American L. smithsonianus Coues, 1862, separated as a species by (Pons et al. 2005) and the Siberian L. vegae Palmen, 1887, separated as a distinct species by (Crochet et al. 2002).

Larus michahellis Yellow-legged Gull

Larus thayeri Thayer's Gull

Larus glaucoides Iceland Gull

Larus fuscus Lesser Black-backed Gull

Larus schistisagus Slaty-backed Gull

Larus glaucescens Glaucous-winged Gull

Larus hyperboreus Glaucous Gull

Larus marinus Great Black-backed Gull

Larus dominicanus Kelp Gull

p. 194. Creagrus furcatus is moved from the Appendix to the main list. A report of a bird in Monterey Bay in 1985 was rejected by the California Bird Records Committee (CBRC) on the basis of uncertain origin of the bird (DeBenedictis 1996). More recent reports resulted in reevaluation of that report, and it is now accepted by the CBRC and the American Birding Association Checklist Committee (Rottenborn and Morlan 2000, Pranty et al. 2007). It would have followed Xema sabini in the 7th edition; its proper position is indicated in the listing above.

pp. 240–241. On the basis of mtDNA sequence data, (Ribas et al. 2005) removed several species of South and Middle American parrots from the genus Pionopsitta Bonaparte, 1854 and placed them in the genus Gypopsitta Bonaparte, 1856 (type species Psittacus vulturinus Kuhl, 1820). Among these species was P. pyrilia (Bonaparte, 1853), which is the type species of the genus Pyrilia Bonaparte, 1856. Most citations for these generic names (e.g., Cory 1918, Peters 1937) indicate that they originate from the same paper, but Pyrilia was named earlier in 1856 in a different paper and must be used when the two type species are placed in the same genus.

Replace the heading for the genus Pionopsitta with:

Genus PYRILIA Bonaparte

Pyrilia Bonaparte, 1856 (2 June), Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 42:956. Type, by original designation and tautonomy, Psittacula pyrilia Bonaparte.

Gypopsitta Bonaparte, 1856 (August), Naumannia, Beilage no. 1, Consp. Psitt., genus 25. Type, by monotypy, Psittacus vulturinus Wagler = Psittacus vulturinus Kuhl.

Notes.—Formerly merged with the South American genus Pionopsitta Bonaparte, 1854, but separated on the basis of mitochondrial DNA sequence data by (Ribas et al. 2005), who removed several species of South and Middle American parrots from Pionopsitta and placed them in the genus Gypopsitta Bonaparte, 1856, but Pyrilia Bonaparte, 1856 has priority.

Replace the name Pionopsitta pyrilia (Bonaparte) with Pyrilia pyrilia (Bonaparte).

Replace the name Pionopsitta haematotis (Sclater and Salvin) with Pyrilia haematotis (Sclater and Salvin). Reverse the sequence of those species so that pyrilia follows haematotis.

p. 286. Remove the hyphen in the English name of Colibri delphinae, changing it to Brown Violetear (as in Remsen et al. 2008).

p. 287. Remove the hyphen in the English name of Colibri thalassinus, changing it to Green Violetear (as in Remsen et al. 2008). In the Notes, change Mountain Violet-ear to Mountain Violetear.

p. 296. Change the English name of Goethalsia bella to Pirre Hummingbird (as in Wetmore 1968, Ridgely 1976, Dickinson 2003, and Remsen et al. 2008). Change notes accordingly.

p. 326. Nonnula frontalis is separated from the allopatric

N. ruficapilla. No evidence was presented for their merger and most classifications (e.g., Sibley and Monroe 1990, Rasmussen and Collar 2002, Dickinson 2003, Remsen et al. 2008) treat them as distinct. The English name is retained for the form in our area.

Change the species name and citation of N. ruficapilla to:

Nonnula frontalis (Sclater). Gray-cheeked Nunlet.

Malacoptila frontalis Sclater, 1854, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (2) 13:479. (Nova Grenada = interior of Colombia.)

Change the Distribution by removing the term "[frontalis group]" and all mention of the ruficapilla group. Change the Notes to: Formerly treated as conspecific with N. ruficapilla (Tschudi, 1844) [Rufous-capped Nunlet] of South America. Because most sources treat the two as distinct species (Hilty and Brown 1986, Rasmussen and Collar 2002, Dickinson 2003, Remsen et al. 2008), and no evidence supporting a close relationship has ever been presented, we consider that treating ruficapilla and frontalis as distinct species is the best course.

p. 343. The species now listed as Piculus rubiginosus and P. auricularis are transferred to the genus Colaptes. Move the accounts of these two species to precede that of Colaptes punctigula under the heading of the genus Colaptes, under the names:

Colaptes rubiginosus (Swainson). Golden-olive Woodpecker.

Colaptes auricularis (Salvin and Godman). Gray-crowned Woodpecker.

In the Notes of each species, change the generic name or abbreviation to Colaptes or C., and add the statement: Formerly placed in the genus Piculus, but studies of morphological and genetic characters (Benz et al. 2006, Moore et al. 2006) indicate that they are members of Colaptes.

To the synonymy of the genus Colaptes, after the citation for Chrysoptilus, insert:

Chloronerpes Swainson, 1837, Classif. Birds, 2, p. 307. Type by subsequent designation (G. R. Gray, 1840), C. rubiginosus Swainson = Picus rubiginosus Swainson.

p. 347. The species Sapayoa aenigma has been shown by DNA sequence data to be more closely related to Old World suboscines than to any New World group (Fjeldså et al. 2003, Chesser 2004), and to be embedded in the Old World broadbill family Eurylaimidae (Irestedt et al. 2006, Moyle et al. 2006). After the heading for the Order Passeriformes, insert headings:

Suborder EURYLAIMI: Broadbills, Asities, and Pittas

Family EURYLAIMIDAE: Broadbills

Move the heading for the genus Sapayoa and the account for Sapayoa aenigma from p. 416 to follow this newly added family.

p. 347 et seq. Independent genetic data sets (Irestedt et al. 2002, 2006; Fjeldså et al. 2003; Chesser 2004) indicate that the family Furnariidae (including the former Dendrocolaptidae, merged into Furnariidae in an earlier Supplement [Banks et al. 2006]) should be divided into three subfamilies: (1) Sclerurinae, containing the genus Sclerurus and the South American genus Geositta; (2) Furnariinae, containing the remaining genera in the Furnariidae; and (3) Dendrocolaptinae, including the genera in the former family Dendrocolaptidae. The sequence of the genera in the two latter subfamilies does not change.

Change the heading Family FURNARIIDAE: Ovenbirds to Family FURNARIIDAE: Ovenbirds, Woodcreepers, and Leaftossers.

Delete the Notes and insert a center heading:

Subfamily SCLERURINAE: Leaftossers and Miners

Move the accounts of the genus Sclerurus and the included species from pages 353–354 to follow this new subfamily heading.

After the account of Sclerurus guatemalensis, insert a center heading:

Subfamily FURNARIINAE: Ovenbirds

Following the account for Lochmias nematura on p. 354, insert a center heading:

Subfamily DENDROCOLAPTINAE: Woodcreepers

pp. 364–365. (Isler et al. 2006) found that the genus Myrmotherula is not monophyletic and named a new genus, Epinecrophylla, for the stipple-throated species, to include the species fulviventris of our area and seven species endemic to South America.

Delete the Notes under the genus Myrmotherula. Before the heading of the genus Herpsilochmus on p. 365, insert the heading:

Genus EPINECROPHYLLA Isler and Brumfield

Epinecrophylla Isler and Brumfield, 2006, in Isler et al., Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 116: 523. Type species Formicivora haematonota Sclater, 1857.

Insert the account for Myrmotherula fulviventris, moved from p. 364, with the heading:

Epinecrophylla fulviventris (Lawrence). Checker-throated Antwren.

Add the following: Notes.—Formerly placed in the genus Myrmotherula, but separated on the basis of genetic data and morphological, vocal, and ecological characters (Isler et al. 2006).

pp. 370–371. Strong genetic evidence (Irestedt et al. 2002; Chesser 2004; Rice 2005a, b) indicates that the family Formicariidae should be limited to antthrushes of the genera Formicarius and (extralimital) Chamaeza. The genus Pittasoma is closely related to the South American Conopophaga and belongs with it in the family Conopophagidae. The genera Grallaria, Hylopezus, and Grallaricula are now placed in a newly recognized family Grallariidae. Both of the latter two families, new to our list, were established by (Sclater and Salvin 1873).

Remove the words "and Antpittas" from the heading of the family Formicariidae.

After the account of Formicarius rufipectus and before the genus Pittasoma, insert:

Family CONOPOPHAGIDAE: Gnateaters.

After the citation of the genus Pittasoma, add: Notes.—Formerly treated as part of the family Formicariidae, but now moved to the Conopophagidae to reflect relationships with the genus Conopophaga (Krabbe and Schulenberg 2003, Rice 2005a).

After the account of Pittasoma michleri and before the genus Grallaria, insert:

Family GRALLARIIDAE: Antpittas.

Insert: Notes.—Members of this family were previously included in the family Formicariidae but are placed in their own family because genetic data (Irestedt et al. 2002) indicate that their inclusion in the Formicariidae would make it non-monophyletic.

p. 383. Change the English name of Cnipodectes subbrunneus to Brownish Twistwing, as in most recent South American works, e.g., Remsen et al. 2008. Change the Notes to read: Formerly known as Brownish Flycatcher.

p. 409. Conopias parvus is considered a species distinct from C. albovittatus. Remove the term "[albovittatus group]" and all mention of the parvus group from the section on Distribution. Change the Notes to read: Notes.—Formerly considered conspecific with C. parvus (Pelzeln, 1868) [Yellow-throated Flycatcher] of South America, but separated because of vocal differences (Ridgely and Greenfield 2001, Fitzpatrick 2004). Sometimes placed in the genus Coryphotriccus.

p. 414. A new record of Tyrannus caudifasciatus in Florida places the species back on the list of birds known to occur in the United States, from which it was removed by (Banks et al. 2002). Replace the second paragraph of the Distribution section with:

Accidental in Florida (Key West, Monroe County, 8–27 March 2007; North American Birds 61:432, 2007). Analysis of photos (J. S. Greenlaw in litt.) indicates that the subspecies was likely caudifasciatus or perhaps caymanensis. All prior reports from south Florida are considered questionable (Smith et al. 2000). A sight report for the central Bahamas (Long Island).

Delete last two sentences in notes.

p. 416. Delete the word "seven" from the first sentence and the entire second sentence in the Notes under the heading Genera INCERTAE SEDIS.

p. 463. The page number in the citation of the genus Poecile should be 114, not 92.

p. 490. Phylloscopus proregulus is added to the main list on the basis of a new distributional record. Following the account of P. fuscatus, before that of P. inornatus (added to the list by Banks et al. 2002), insert the following:

Phylloscopus proregulus (Pallas). Pallas's Leaf-Warbler.

Motacilla Proregulus Pallas, 1811, Zoographia Rosso-Asiat. 1:490. (Ingoda River, southern Transbaikalia.)

Habitat.—Breeds in mature coniferous and mixed forest, usually with dense scrub undergrowth.

Distribution.—Breeds from southwestern Siberia east to Transbaikalia, northern Mongolia, northern Manchuria, Amurland, Ussuriland, and Sakhalin.

Winters in southeastern China and northern Indochina. Frequent in fall migration to Scandinavia and northwest Europe, particularly the United Kingdom, and casually to the Mediterranean region and Iceland.

Accidental in Alaska (Gambell, St. Lawrence Island,

25 September 2006; photos; Lehman and Rosenberg 2007).

Notes.—We follow (Alström and Olsson 1990) in treating this species as monotypic.

p. 508. Song Thrush (Turdus philomelos) is added to the main list because of new distributional records. Following the account for Turdus iliacus, insert the following:

Turdus philomelos Brehm. Song Thrush.

Turdus philomelos Brehm, 1831, Handb. Naturgesch. Vög. Deutschl., p. 382. (Mitteldeutschland.)

Habitat.—Breeds in a variety of woodland types.

Distribution.—Breeds from British Isles and Europe east across Siberia to Lake Baikal and south to northern Iran.

Winters in the Mediterranean Basin and southern Asia with small numbers to North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.

Wanders to Iceland in late fall.

Accidental in northeastern Greenland (specimen) at Clavering Ø in 1982; (Boertmann 1994) and Canada (11–17 November 2006, Saint-Fulgence, Quebec; Auchu et al. 2007; photos).

pp. 508–512. The English group names of several American species in the genus Turdus are changed from Robin to Thrush, to agree with the treatments by (Ridgely and Tudor 1989), (Sibley and Monroe 1990), (Gill and Wright 2006), and (Remsen et al. 2008). These changes are as follows:

  • Turdus nigrescens Sooty Robin becomes Sooty Thrush

  • Turdus infuscatus Black Robin becomes Black Thrush

  • Turdus plebejus Mountain Robin becomes Mountain Thrush

  • Turdus grayi Clay-colored Robin becomes Clay-colored Thrush

  • Turdus nudigenis Bare-eyed Robin becomes Bare-eyed Thrush (We are awaiting proposals for a potential name change for this species because African T. tephronotus typically bears the same English name)

  • Turdus assimilis White-throated Robin becomes White-throated Thrush

p. 573. Change the English name of Chlorothraupis carmioli to Carmiol's Tanager (as in Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Dickinson 2003, Remsen et al. 2008), from Olive Tanager to avoid confusion with C. olivacea.

pp. 586–589. A gene-based phylogeny (Burns and Naoki 2004) has indicated that relationships in the genus Tangara are best expressed by a new linear arrangement of the species. Rearrange the species in our list to the following sequence:

  • Tangara palmeri

  • Tangara cabanisi

  • Tangara cucullata

  • Tangara larvata

  • Tangara guttata

  • Tangara fucosa

  • Tangara dowii

  • Tangara inornata

  • Tangara lavinia

  • Tangara gyrola

  • Tangara florida

  • Tangara icterocephala

Add the following after the citation for the genus Tangara: Notes.—The sequence of species in this genus is based on the phylogeny indicated by the genetic data of (Burns and Naoki 2004).

pp. 600–602. The genera Lysurus and Buarremon are merged into the genus Arremon to reflect relationships found by study of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA (Cadena et al. 2007).

Delete the headings for the genera Lysurus and Buarremon; move their citations to follow the citation for the genus Arremon. Move the account for Lysurus crassirostris to follow that of Arremon aurantiirostris, and the accounts of the three species of Buarremon to follow that of crassirostris, with the new headings:

  • Arremon crassirostris (Cassin)

  • Arremon brunneinucha (Lafresnaye)

  • Arremon virenticeps (Bonaparte)

  • Arremon torquatus (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny)

In the Notes under A. crassirostris, change the generic name Lysurus to Arremon and the initial L. to A.; add: Formerly treated in the genus Lysurus but merged into Arremon to reflect relationships found by (Cadena et al. 2007).

In the Notes under those species formerly in Buarremon (creating a new Note for A. virenticeps) insert: Formerly treated in the genus Buarremon. (Cadena et al. 2007) found that genetic data indicate that Buarremon as traditionally defined is paraphyletic with respect to Arremon and also probably Lysurus. Change the generic abbreviations from B. to A.

p. 607. Remove the parentheses around the names of the authors of Aimophila humeralis and A. sumichrasti. The Code, Article 51.3.1 (International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1999) states that "Parentheses are not used when the species-group name was originally combined with an incorrect spelling or an emendation of the generic name. . . ."

p. 623. The page numbers in the citation for Zonotrichia leucophrys should be 403, 426, not 340.

p. 652. The species Icterus icterus is divided into three species; the two populations separated, currently called groups, are extralimital to our area.

Change the English name of Icterus icterus (Linnaeus) to Venezuelan Troupial. From the Distribution, remove the phrases "[icterus group]" and the sections on the croconotus and jamacaii groups. Change Notes to: Formerly included two South American populations now separated as the species Icterus croconotus (Wagler, 1829) [Orange-backed Troupial] and I. jamacaii (Gmelin, 1788) [Campo Troupial] on the basis of limited sympatry without signs of interbreeding between jamacaii and croconotus (Pacheco and Olmos 2006) and pronounced vocal differences among the three (Jaramillo and Burke 1999, Ridgely and Greenfield 2001, Hilty 2002). Retain the last sentence.

pp. 674–675. The species listed as Hemignathus parvus is transferred to the monotypic genus Magumma on the basis of studies of mtDNA (Tarr and Fleischer 1993, Fleischer et al. 2001) and morphology (Conant et al. 1998, Pratt 2005). After the account for Hemignathus munroi and before the genus Oreomystis, insert:

Genus MAGUMMA Mathews

Rothschildia Perkins in Wilson and Evans, 1899, Aves Hawaiiensis, p. xxi. Type, by monotypy, Himatione parva Stejneger.

Magumma Mathews, 1925, Bull. Brit. Ornithol. Club 45: 93. New name for Rothschildia Perkins, preoccupied.

Notes.—Formerly included in Hemignathus Lichtenstein, but separated on the basis of genetic and morphological differences (Tarr and Fleischer 1993, Fleischer et al. 2001, Pratt 2005).

Insert the account of Hemignathus parvus (p. 674) with the heading:

Magumma parva (Stejneger). Anianiau.

The account remains the same, but change Notes to: Formerly included in the genus Hemignathus, but see above.

p. 692. Delete the account for Creagrus furcatus, now moved to the main list.

p. 693. Change Columba goodsoni Hartert to Patagioenas goodsoni (Hartert).

p. 705 et seq. In the list of French names for North American Birds, make the following changes:

Insert the following names in the proper position as indicated by the text of this Supplement:

  • Anas zonorhyncha Canard de Chine

  • Helicolestes hamatus

  • Creagrus furcatus

  • Pyrilia haematotis

  • Pyrilia pyrilia

  • Nonnula frontalis Barbacou à joues grises

  • Colaptes rubiginosus

  • Colaptes auricularis

  • EURYLAIMIDAE

  • CONOPOPHAGIDAE

  • GRALLARIIDAE

  • Epinecrophylla fulviventris

  • Phylloscopus proregulus Pouillot de Pallas

  • Turdus philomelos Grive musicienne

  • Magumma parva Anianiau de Kauai

Delete the following names:

  • Anas poecilorhyncha

  • Rostrhamus hamatus

  • Buteogallus subtilis

  • Pionopsitta pyrilia

  • Pionopsitta haematotis

  • Nonnula ruficapilla

  • Piculus rubiginosus

  • Piculus auricularis

  • Myrmotherula fulviventris

  • Hemignathus parvus

Change the French names of the following species:

  • Phoenicopterus ruber Flamant des Caraïbes

  • Geotrygon veraguensis Colombe de Veraguas

  • Aratinga nana Conure aztèque

  • Coccyzus pluvialis Tacco de pluie

  • Coccyzus rufigularis Tacco cabrite

  • Threnetes ruckeri Ermite de Rücker

  • Anthracothorax veraguensis Mango de Veraguas

  • Melanerpes hoffmannii Pic de Hoffmann

  • Pittasoma michleri Pittasome à tête noire

  • Baoelophus ridgwayi Mésange des genévriers

  • Saltator grossus Saltator ardoisé

  • Pterodroma defilippiana Pétrel de De Filippi

Reverse the sequence of Tinamus major and Nothocercus bonapartei.

Change the generic names and position:

  • Lysurus crassirostris to Arremon crassirostris

  • Buarremon brunneinucha to Arremon brunneinucha

  • Buarremon virenticeps to Arremon virenticeps

  • Buarremon torquatus to Arremon torquatus

Move PHOENICOPTERIDAE and Phoenicopterus ruber to follow PODICIPEDIDAE.

Replace the listing of the Laridae from Larus atricilla to Pagophila eburnea with the following, with no change in French names:

  • Creagrus furcatus

  • Rissa tridactyla

  • Rissa brevirostris

  • Pagophila eburnea

  • Xema sabini

  • Chroicocephalus philadelphia

  • Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus

  • Chroicocephalus ridibundus

  • Hydrocoloeus minutus

  • Rhodostethia rosea

  • Leucophaeus modestus

  • Leucophaeus atricilla

  • Leucophaeus pipixcan

  • Larus belcheri

  • Larus crassirostris

  • Larus heermanni

  • Larus canus

  • Larus delawarensis

  • Larus occidentalis

  • Larus livens

  • Larus californicus

  • Larus argentatus

  • Larus michahellis

  • Larus thayeri

  • Larus glaucoides

  • Larus fuscus

  • Larus schistisagus

  • Larus glaucescens

  • Larus hyperboreus

  • Larus marinus

  • Larus dominicanus

Move Sapayoa aenigma to follow the newly inserted EURYLAIMIDAE.

Move the three species of Sclerurus to the beginning of the FURNARIIDAE.

Rearrange the species in Tangara to the following sequence:

  • Tangara palmeri

  • Tangara cabanisi

  • Tangara cucullata

  • Tangara larvata

  • Tangara guttata

  • Tangara fucosa

  • Tangara dowii

  • Tangara inornata

  • Tangara lavinia

  • Tangara gyrola

  • Tangara florida

  • Tangara icterocephala

Delete Creagrus furcatus from its listing in the appendix.

Change Columba goodsoni to Patagioenas goodsoni.

Taxonomic proposals considered but not accepted by the Committee include: recognition of Chondrohierax uncinatus wilsonii of Cuba as a species (Johnson et al. 2007); resurrection of the genus Rupornis for the Roadside Hawk (Riesing et al. 2003); the merger of Rhodostethia into Hydrocoloeus (Pons et al. 2005); the separation of Larus smithsonianus and L. vegae from L. argentatus (Crochet et al. 2002, Pons et al. 2005, Olson and Banks 2007); the separation of Pionopsitta (now Pyrilia) h. coccinicollaris from P. haematotis (Ribas et al. 2005); the transfer of Veniliornis fumigatus to Picoides (Moore et al. 2006), held in anticipation of further changes in Picoides; the division of Icterus spurius into two species (Kiere et al. 2007); and the transfer of the New World species of Carpodacus to the genus Burrica (Arnaiz-Villena et al. 2007). Proposals to change the English names of Gallinula chloropus, Brotogeris versicolurus, and Microbates cinereiventris were rejected. Finally, a broad proposal to alter the hyphenation of English names was not accepted for reasons outlined elsewhere (Auk 124:1472, 2007).

Acknowledgments

Normand David serves as the Committee's advisor for classical languages in relation to scientific names, and Michel Gosselin is the authority for French names. We also thank K. J. Burns, C. D. Cadena, T. Donegan, R. Fraga, D. D. Gibson, M. J. Iliff, A. Jaramillo, M. Mendenhall, A. P. Peterson, H. D. Pratt, F. G. Stiles, J.Tobias, and K. J. Zimmer for assistance, suggestions, and comments.

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Richard C. Banks, R. Terry Chesser, Carla Cicero, Jon L. Dunn, Andrew W. Kratter, Irby J. Lovette, Pamela C. Rasmussen, J. V. Remsen, James D. Rising, Douglas F. Stotz, and Kevin Winker "Forty-Ninth Supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-List of North American Birds," The Auk 125(3), (1 July 2008). https://doi.org/10.1525/auk.2008.9708
Published: 1 July 2008
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