Translator Disclaimer
1 July 2010 Fifty-First Supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-List of North American Birds
Author Affiliations +

This is the 10th supplement since publication of the seventh edition of the Check-list of North American Birds (American Ornithologists' Union [AOU] 1998). It summarizes decisions made between 1 January 2009 and 31 March 2010 by the AOU's Committee on Classification and Nomenclature—North and Middle America. The Committee has continued to operate in the manner outlined in the 42nd Supplement (AOU 2000). There were no changes to committee membership in 2009.

Changes in this supplement include the following: (1) one genus (Chrysomus) and eight species (Oceanodroma monorhis, Ixobrychus minutus, Ardea purpurea, Platalea leucorodia, Glareola pratincola, Elaenia albiceps, Luscinia sibilans, and Chrysomus icterocephalus) are added to the main list (including three species transferred from the Appendix) on the basis of new distributional information; (2) the distributional statement of one species (Trogon melanurus) is changed because of a split from an extralimital species; (3) three species are changed (to Melanitta americana, Trogon caligatus, and T. chionurus) by being split from extralimital species; (4) six species (Caprimulgus arizonae, Chasiempis sclateri, C. ibidis, Icterus northropi, I. melanopsis, and I. portoricensis) are added as a result of splits from species already on the list; (5) two species (Troglodytes hiemalis and T. pacificus) are added by being split both from an extralimital taxon (T. troglodytes) and from each other; (6) five species (Melozone fusca, M. albicollis, M. crissalis, M. aberti, and Amphispiza quinquestriata) are transferred to currently recognized genera; (7) five genera (Psilorhinus, Peucaea, Oreothlypis, Parkesia, and Rhynchophanes) are added because of splits from other genera, resulting in changes to 20 scientific names; (8) a new scientific name (Vermivora cyanoptera) is adopted for one species because of a nomenclatural problem with the previous scientific name (V. pinus); (9) the citation for one species (Dendroica pinus) is changed; (10) the endings of the specific or subspecific names of two taxa (Acanthidops bairdi and Vireo gilvus swainsoni) are corrected; (11) the English names of three species (Caprimulgus vociferus, Chasiempis sandwichensis, and Icterus dominicensis) are modified as a result of taxonomic changes, the English name of one species (Puffinus gravis) is modified for global conformity, and the hyphen is removed from the English name of one species (Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus); and (12) two species (Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus and Thryothorus sinaloa) are added to the list of species known to occur in the United States.

Numerous changes are made at higher levels of the classification on the basis of new genetic data. Four newly recognized orders (Phaethontiformes, Suliformes, Accipitriformes, and Eurypygiformes) are added to the main list by being split from existing orders, and 11 newly recognized or restored families (Pandionidae, Capitonidae, Semnornithidae, Polioptilidae, Cettiidae, Phylloscopidae, Acrocephalidae, Donacobiidae, Megaluridae, Calcariidae, and Viduidae) are added to the main list by splits from existing families. Two families (Ardeidae and Threskiornithidae) are transferred from the order Ciconiiformes to the order Pelecaniformes. New linear sequences are adopted for species in the genera Cyanolyca, Aimophila, and Pipilo, and the sequences of genera within the Cotingidae and portions of the Corvidae and Emberizidae are rearranged to reflect new findings on relationships. One genus (Lipaugus) is moved from Incertae Sedis to the Cotingidae. The family placement of one species (Chamaea fasciata) is changed on the basis of new information on its phylogenetic relationships. The English group names of three orders (Pelecaniformes, Ciconiiformes, and Falconiformes), one suborder (Pelecani), and three families (Ramphastidae, Sylviidae, and Cardinalidae) are modified because of changes to the composition of these groups.

Literature that provides the basis for the Committee's decisions is cited at the end of this supplement, and citations not already in the Literature Cited of the seventh edition (with supplements) become additions to it. An updated list of the bird species known from the AOU Check-list area is available at  www.aou.org/checklist/north/index.php.

The following changes to the seventh edition (page numbers refer thereto) and its supplements result from the Committee's actions:

pp. xvii–liv. Change the number in the title of the list of species to 2,070. Insert the following names in the proper positions as indicated by the text of this supplement:

  • Melanitta americana American Scoter

  • Puffinus gravis Great Shearwater

  • Oceanodroma monorhis Swinhoe's Storm-Petrel (A)

  • PHAETHONTIFORMES

  • SULIFORMES

  • Ixobrychus minutus Little Bittern (A)

  • Ardea purpurea Purple Heron (A)

  • Platalea leucorodia Eurasian Spoonbill (A)

  • ACCIPITRIFORMES

  • PANDIONIDAE

  • EURYPYGIFORMES

  • Glareola pratincola Collared Pratincole (A)

  • Caprimulgus vociferus Eastern Whip-poor-will

  • Caprimulgus arizonae Mexican Whip-poor-will

  • Trogon chionurus White-tailed Trogon

  • Trogon caligatus Gartered Trogon

  • CAPITONIDAE

  • SEMNORNITHIDAE

  • Elaenia albiceps White-crested Elaenia (A)

  • Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus Crowned Slaty Flycatcher (A)

  • Psilorhinus morio Brown Jay

  • Chasiempis sclateri Kauai Elepaio (H)

  • Chasiempis ibidis Oahu Elepaio (H)

  • Chasiempis sandwichensis Hawaii Elepaio (H)

  • Troglodytes pacificus Pacific Wren

  • Troglodytes hiemalis Winter Wren

  • POLIOP TILIDAE

  • CETTIIDAE

  • PHYLLOSCOPIDAE

  • ACROCEPHALIDAE

  • DONACOBIIDAE

  • MEGALURIDAE

  • Luscinia sibilans Rufous-tailed Robin (A)

  • Vermivora cyanoptera Blue-winged Warbler

  • Oreothlypis peregrina Tennessee Warbler

  • Oreothlypis celata Orange-crowned Warbler

  • Oreothlypis ruficapilla Nashville Warbler

  • Oreothlypis virginiae Virginia's Warbler

  • Oreothlypis crissalis Colima Warbler

  • Oreothlypis luciae Lucy's Warbler

  • Oreothlypis gutturalis Flame-throated Warbler

  • Oreothlypis superciliosa Crescent-chested Warbler

  • Parkesia noveboracensis Northern Waterthrush

  • Parkesia motacilla Louisiana Waterthrush

  • *Acanthidops bairdi Peg-billed Finch

  • Melozone fusca Canyon Towhee

  • Melozone albicollis White-throated Towhee

  • Melozone crissalis California Towhee

  • Melozone aberti Abert's Towhee

  • Peucaea sumichrasti Cinnamon-tailed Sparrow

  • Peucaea carpalis Rufous-winged Sparrow

  • Peucaea ruficauda Stripe-headed Sparrow

  • Peucaea humeralis Black-chested Sparrow

  • Peucaea mystacalis Bridled Sparrow

  • Peucaea botterii Botteri's Sparrow

  • Peucaea cassinii Cassin's Sparrow

  • Peucaea aestivalis Bachman's Sparrow

  • Amphispiza quinquestriata Five-striped Sparrow

  • CALCARIIDAE

  • Rhynchophanes mccownii McCown's Longspur

  • Chrysomus icterocephalus Yellow-hooded Blackbird (A)

  • Icterus northropi Bahama Oriole

  • Icterus melanopsis Cuban Oriole

  • Icterus dominicensis Hispaniolan Oriole

  • Icterus portoricensis Puerto Rican Oriole

  • VIDUIDAE

Delete the following names:

  • Melanitta nigra Black Scoter

  • Puffinus gravis Greater Shearwater

  • Pandioninae

  • Accipitrinae

  • Caprimulgus vociferus Whip-poor-will

  • Trogon viridis White-tailed Trogon

  • Trogon violaceus Violaceous Trogon

  • Capitoninae

  • Semnornithinae

  • Ramphastinae

  • Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus Crowned Slaty-Flycatcher (A)

  • Cyanocorax morio Brown Jay

  • Chasiempis sandwichensis Elepaio (H)

  • Troglodytes troglodytes Winter Wren

  • Sylviinae

  • Polioptilinae

  • Vermivora pinus Blue-winged Warbler

  • Vermivora peregrina Tennessee Warbler

  • Vermivora celata Orange-crowned Warbler

  • Vermivora ruficapilla Nashville Warbler

  • Vermivora virginiae Virginia's Warbler

  • Vermivora crissalis Colima Warbler

  • Vermivora luciae Lucy's Warbler

  • Parula gutturalis Flame-throated Warbler

  • Parula superciliosa Crescent-chested Warbler

  • Seiurus noveboracensis Northern Waterthrush

  • Seiurus motacilla Louisiana Waterthrush

  • *Acanthidops bairdii Peg-billed Finch

  • Pipilo albicollis White-throated Towhee

  • Pipilo fuscus Canyon Towhee

  • Pipilo crissalis California Towhee

  • Pipilo aberti Abert's Towhee

  • Aimophila ruficauda Stripe-headed Sparrow

  • Aimophila humeralis Black-chested Sparrow

  • Aimophila mystacalis Bridled Sparrow

  • Aimophila sumichrasti Cinnamon-tailed Sparrow

  • Aimophila carpalis Rufous-winged Sparrow

  • Aimophila cassinii Cassin's Sparrow

  • Aimophila aestivalis Bachman's Sparrow

  • Aimophila botterii Botteri's Sparrow

  • Aimophila quinquestriata Five-striped Sparrow

  • *Calcarius mccownii McCown's Longspur

  • Icterus dominicensis Greater Antillean Oriole

  • Estrildinae

  • Viduinae

Recognize new orders PHAETHONTIFORMES, SULIFORMES, and ACCIPITRIFORMES, elevate Pandioninae to PANDIONIDAE, and move several families between orders, rearranging and reconstituting the orders between PROCELLARIIFORMES and GRUIFORMES as follows, with PHAETHONTIFORMES immediately following Oceanodroma microsoma:

  • PHAETHONTIFORMES

    • PHAETHONTIDAE

  • CICONIIFORMES

    • CICONIIDAE

  • SULIFORMES

    • FREGATIDAE

    • SULIDAE

    • PHALACROCORACIDAE

    • ANHINGIDAE

  • PELECANIFORMES

    • PELECANIDAE

    • ARDEIDAE

    • THRESKIORNITHIDAE

  • ACCIPITRIFORMES

    • CATHARTIDAE

    • PANDIONIDAE

    • ACCIPITRIDAE

  • FALCONIFORMES

    • FALCONIDAE

Other than the elevation of Pandioninae and the transfer of Pandion haliaetus from ACCIPITRIDAE to PANDIONIDAE, all subfamilies and species in these families remain in the current sequence within their current family.

Move EURYPYGIDAE and its included species to the newly inserted EURYPYGIFORMES, to follow Falco mexicanus.

Move Lipaugus unirufus to COTINGIDAE to precede Procnias tricarunculatus.

Change the sequence of genera of COTINGIDAE to:

  • Querula

  • Cephalopterus

  • Cotinga

  • Lipaugus

  • Procnias

  • Carpodectes

Change the sequence of genera from Cyanocitta to Gymnorhinus to:

  • Cyanolyca

  • Calocitta

  • Psilorhinus

  • Cyanocorax

  • Gymnorhinus

  • Cyanocitta

  • Aphelocoma

Rearrange the species in Cyanolyca to the following sequence:

  • Cyanolyca mirabilis

  • Cyanolyca nana

  • Cyanolyca pumilo

  • Cyanolyca argentigula

  • Cyanolyca cucullata

Move newly inserted family POLIOPTILIDAE and its included species to follow Cyphorhinus phaeocephalus.

Change the sequence of families from SYLVIIDAE to ZOSTEROPIDAE, including newly inserted families CETTIIDAE, PHYLLOSCOPIDAE, ACROCEPHALIDAE, DONACOBIIDAE, and MEGALURIDAE, to:

  • CETTIIDAE

  • PHYLLOSCOPIDAE

  • SYLVIIDAE

  • ZOSTEROPIDAE

  • TIMALIIDAE

  • ACROCEPHALIDAE

  • DONACOBIIDAE

  • MEGALURIDAE

  • MUSCICAPIDAE

  • TURDIDAE

Move Cettia diphone to follow the newly inserted CETTIIDAE.

Move the six species of Phylloscopus to follow the newly inserted PHYLLOSCOPIDAE.

Move Chamaea fasciata to SYLVIIDAE, following Sylvia curruca.

Move the two species of Acrocephalus to follow the newly inserted ACROCEPHALIDAE.

Move Donacobius atricapilla to follow the newly inserted DONACOBIIDAE, and delete the asterisk in front of the name.

Move the two species of Locustella to follow the newly inserted MEGALURIDAE.

Rearrange the species remaining in Pipilo to the following sequence:

  • Pipilo ocai

  • Pipilo chlorurus

  • Pipilo maculatus

  • Pipilo erythrophthalmus

Rearrange the species remaining in Aimophila to the following sequence:

  • Aimophila rufescens

  • Aimophila ruficeps

  • Aimophila notosticta

Change the sequence of genera from Atlapetes to Aimophila to:

  • Arremon

  • Arremonops

  • Atlapetes

  • Pipilo

  • Aimophila

  • Melozone

  • Peucaea

Move Amphispiza quinquestriata to precede Amphispiza bilineata.

Move the three species of Calcarius, Rhynchophanes mccownii, and the two species of Plectrophenax to follow the newly inserted CALCARIIDAE. Remove the asterisks in front of the three species of Calcarius, Rhynchophanes mccownii, and the two species of Plectrophenax.

p. 18. Change the English name for Puffinus gravis to Great Shearwater (as in Marchant and Higgins 1990a, Sibley and Monroe 1990, Carboneras 1992, Dudley et al. 2006). Change Notes to read: Formerly known as Greater Shearwater (e.g., AOU 1983, 1998), but name modified to conform to general worldwide usage.

p. 24. Before the account for Oceanodroma leucorhoa, insert the following new account:

Oceanodroma monorhis (Swinhoe). Swinhoe's Storm-Petrel.

  • Thalassidroma monorhis Swinhoe, 1867, Ibis, p. 386. (near Amoy, China.)

  • Habitat.—Pelagic waters; nests in burrows on islands.

  • Distribution.Breeds on islands of the North Pacific from the Verhovsky Islands off southern Kamchatka, Russian Far East, south on islands close to the Asian continent including those in the Yellow and South China seas and around the Sea of Japan south to islands off China (Shandong) and Taiwan.

    Winters in the northern Indian Ocean and possibly the western Pacific.

    Rare or casual (mainly in summer) at sea and on islands in the North Atlantic, the North Sea, the western Mediterranean, and the Gulf of Aqaba.

    Casual off Hatteras, North Carolina, where photographed on 8 August 1998 (O'Brien et al. 1999) and on 2 June 2008 (Howell and Patteson 2008, Patteson et al. 2009). Another was seen off Oregon Inlet, North Carolina, on 20 August 1993 (Brinkley 1995). Video of a “dark-rumped” storm-petrel thought to be this species was obtained off Kodiak, Alaska, on 5 August 2003; after review by the Alaska Checklist Committee it was added to their unsubstantiated list (D. D. Gibson in litt.).

  • Notes.—Formerly placed in the Appendix (AOU 2000) on the basis of the 1998 record. Clarification of the status of this species in the eastern North Atlantic (Flood 2009) and the excellent photographic documentation of the 2008 individual warrant adding the species to the main list; see also Pranty et al. (2009). The relationship of O. monorhis to other “dark-rumped” storm-petrels is uncertain (Dawson 1992). Palmer (1962) treated it as a subspecies of O. leucorhoa, whereas Sibley and Monroe (1990) considered the two species to probably constitute a superspecies.

  • In the Notes for O. leucorhoa, change the first sentence to: Oceanodroma leucorhoa and O. monorhis probably constitute a superspecies (Sibley and Monroe 1990), although Mayr and Short (1970) considered O. leucorhoa and O. castro to constitute a superspecies. Replace the last sentence in these Notes with the following: See comments under O. monorhis.

    p. 26. After the account for Oceanodroma microsoma, insert the heading:

    Order PHAETHONTIFORMES: Tropicbirds

  • After this heading insert the following:

  • Notes.—Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences have shown that the tropicbirds are distantly related to the other families in the traditional order Pelecaniformes (Kennedy and Spencer 2004, Ericson et al. 2006, Hackett et al. 2008).

    Delete the heading Suborder PHAETHONTES: Tropicbirds and move the heading Family PHAETHONTIDAE: Tropicbirds and the genus and species accounts included under this heading from pp. 26–27 to a position following this newly inserted order.

    p. 26. Change the heading Order PELECANIFORMES: Totipalmate Birds to Order PELECANIFORMES: Pelicans, Herons, Ibises, and Allies and insert the new heading in a position following the account for Mycteria americana on p. 51. Change the heading Suborder PELECANI: Boobies, Pelicans, Cormorants, and Darters to Suborder PELECANI: Pelicans, and insert this heading under the newly inserted order. Move the heading Family PELECANIDAE: Pelicans and the genus and species accounts included under this heading from pp. 30–31 to a position following the newly changed suborder. Move the headings Suborder ARDEAE: Herons, Bitterns, and Allies, and Family ARDEIDAE: Herons, Bitterns, and Allies, and the genera and species accounts included under these headings, from pp. 36–47 to a position following the account for Pelecanus occidentalis. Move the headings Suborder THRESKIORNITHES: Ibises and Spoonbills, Family THRESKIORNITHIDAE: Ibises and Spoonbills, Subfamily THRESKIORNITHINAE: Ibises, and Subfamily PLATALEINAE: Spoonbills, and the genera and species accounts included under these headings, from pp. 47–50 to a position following the account for Cochlearius cochlearius.

    Replace the Notes under the heading Order PELECANIFORMES with the following:

  • Notes.—Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences have shown that the traditional order Pelecaniformes is not a monophyletic group, even when the family Phaethontidae is removed (Van Tuinen et al. 2001, Ericson et al. 2006, Hackett et al. 2008). Families Balaenicipitidae, Scopidae (both outside of the AOU area), Ardeidae, and Threskiornithidae, all traditionally placed in the Ciconiiformes, are more closely related to the Pelecanidae than are other groups traditionally placed in the Pelecaniformes.

  • p. 38. After the account for Ixobrychus exilis, insert the following new account:

    Ixobrychus minutus (Linnaeus). Little Bittern.

  • Ardea minuta Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat. (ed. 12), 1:240. (“Helvetia, Aleppo”; restricted to Switzerland by Vaurie, 1965, Birds Pal. Fauna, Non-Pass., p. 57.)

  • Habitat.—Primarily freshwater marshes; also mangroves.

  • Distribution.Breeds in much of Europe and locally in northern Africa east across Russia to south-central Siberia, Iran, northwestern India, and Madagascar. Resident or locally nomadic in sub-Saharan Africa, Madagascar (possibly), southern and eastern Australia, and formerly on South Island, New Zealand. Small numbers also found annually in southern New Guinea.

    Winters mainly in Africa south of the Sahara.

    Rare or casual in the United Kingdom (has bred), the Faeroes, Scandinavia, the Azores, Madeira, and western China. Accidental in Iceland and the Cape Verde Islands.

    Accidental in the Lesser Antilles (Barbados; 10–31 December 1995, photograph; Buckley et al. 2009).

  • Notes.—The isolated subspecies in Australia (dubius) differs vocally from the European and African subspecies (Rasmussen and Anderton 2005) and may be a separate species. The New Zealand subspecies, novaezelandiae, now considered extinct, has been treated as a separate species (Marchant and Higgins 1990b). See comments under I. exilis.

  • p. 40. After the account for Ardea cocoi, insert the following new account:

    Ardeapurpurea Linnaeus. Purple Heron.

  • Ardea purpurea Linnaeus, 1766. Syst. Nat. (ed. 12), 1:236. (“in Oriente”; restricted to France by Stresemann, 1920, Avifauna Macedonica, p. 226.)

  • Habitat.—Shallow freshwater marshes with extensive bordering vegetation, especially Phragmites; also mangroves.

  • Distribution.Breeds from western and southern Europe east through central Asia, very locally in northwestern Africa, and in the Russian Far East and Japan south to eastern China. Resident in eastern and southern Africa, Mauritania, the Cape Verde Islands, Madagascar, the Indian Subcontinent, southeastern Asia and Taiwan, the Philippines, and eastern Indonesia.

    Winters in sub-Saharan Africa, rarely north to northern Africa, Israel, and the Arabian Peninsula.

    Casual or accidental north to Iceland, the Faeroes, Scandinavia, and Hokkaido; also the Azores, Madeira, the Canary Islands, Brazil, and Trinidad.

    Casual in the Lesser Antilles (Barbados; 21 November 1998–28 April 1999, photograph; 4 December 2005–11 January 2006, photograph; ca. 7–28 September 2008, sight report; Buckley et al. 2009).

  • p. 50. Before the account for Platalea ajaja, known as Ajaia ajaja until the 43rd Supplement (Banks et al. 2002), insert the following new account:

    Platalea leucorodia Linnaeus. Eurasian Spoonbill.

  • Platalea Leucorodia Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10), p. 139; based on “The Spoonbill” of Albin, 1734, Nat. Hist. Birds 2:61, pl. 66. (Europe; restricted to Sweden by Linnaeus, 1761, Fauna Svecica, ed. 2, p. 57.)

  • Habitat.—Open shallow marshes; nests in dense reedbeds or other similar vegetation, often with some shrubs or trees.

  • Distribution.Breeds locally from the Netherlands and southern Europe east across southern Russia to the Russian Far East and northern China. Resident in Mauritania, Iran, the Red Sea region, and the Indian Subcontinent.

    Winters around the Mediterranean Sea and the Persian Gulf, northern Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, southeast China, and Taiwan.

    Rare or casual in Iceland, the Faeroes, Scandinavia, the United Kingdom, northeastern Europe, the Azores, Madeira, the Canary Islands, the Cape Verde Islands, Japan, and southeastern Asia.

    Casual in the Lesser Antilles (Antigua, St. Lucia, Barbados).

    Accidental in western Greenland (specimen, 4 October 1936; Boertmann 1994).

  • Notes.—Also known by the English names European Spoonbill, White Spoonbill, Common Spoonbill, and Spoonbill.

  • p. 50. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences have shown that the traditional order Ciconiiformes is not a monophyletic group (Van Tuinen et al. 2001, Ericson et al. 2006, Hackett et al. 2008). Following removal of families more closely related to the Pelecanidae than to the Ciconiidae (see above), the Ciconiiformes consists of the single family Ciconiidae.

    Change the heading Order CICONIIFORMES: Herons, Ibises, Storks, and Allies to Order CICONIIFORMES: Storks. Change the Notes under the new heading to: See comments under Order PELECANIFORMES. Delete the heading Suborder CICONIAE: Storks.

    p. 51. After the account for Mycteria americana, and preceding the newly positioned Pelecaniformes (see above), insert the heading:

    Order SULIFORMES: Frigatebirds, Boobies, Cormorants, Darters, and Allies

  • Under this heading insert the following:

  • Notes.—Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences have shown that several families traditionally placed in the order Pelecaniformes (Fregatidae, Sulidae, Phalacrocoracidae, and Anhingidae) form the sister taxon to a group consisting of the Pelecanidae and several families traditionally placed in the Ciconiiformes (Van Tuinen et al. 2001, Ericson et al. 2006, Hackett et al. 2008).

    Move the headings Suborder FREGATAE: Frigatebirds and Family FREGATIDAE: Frigatebirds and the included genera and species from pp. 35–36 to a position following the newly inserted order.

    After the account for Fregata ariel, insert the heading Suborder SULAE: Boobies, Cormorants, and Darters. Move the headings Family SULIDAE: Boobies and Gannets, Family PHALACROCORACIDAE: Cormorants, and Family ANHINGIDAE: Darters and the included genera and species from pp. 28–30 and 32–34 to a position following the newly inserted suborder.

  • p. 81. Melanitta americana is treated as a separate species from the allopatric Melanitta nigra. Change the scientific name, English name, and citation to:

    Melanitta americana (Swainson). American Scoter.

  • Oidemia Americana Swainson, 1832, in Swainson and Richardson, Fauna Boreali-Americana, 2 (1831):450. (Hudson Bay.)

    Change the Distribution by removing the term [americana group]” and all mention of the nigra group. Change the Notes to: Formerly treated as conspecific with M. nigra (Linnaeus, 1758) [Black Scoter] of Eurasia, but separated on the basis of courtship calls (Sangster 2009) and color, form, and feathering of the bill in adult males and most adult females (Collinson et al. 2006).

  • p. 86. Before the heading FALCONIFORMES, insert the heading:

    Order ACCIPITRIFORMES: Hawks, Kites, Eagles, and Allies

  • After this heading, insert the following:

  • Notes.—Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences have shown that the traditional order Falconiformes is not a monophyletic group and that the Falconidae is not closely related to the Cathartidae, Pandionidae, and Accipitridae (Ericson et al. 2006, Griffiths et al. 2007, Hackett et al. 2008). Some morphological data (Jollie 1976–1977) also provide support for this view.

    Delete the heading Suborder ACCIPITRES: Kites, Eagles, Hawks, Secretarybirds, and Allies. Move the headings Family CATHARTIDAE: New World Vultures and Family ACCIPITRIDAE: Hawks, Kites, Eagles, and Allies and the genera and species accounts included under these headings from pp. 51–53 and 86– 105 to a position following the newly inserted order. Change the heading Order FALCONIFORMES: Diurnal Birds of Prey to Order FALCONIFORMES: Caracaras and Falcons. After this heading, insert the following:

  • Notes.—See comments under Accipitriformes.

  • Delete the heading Subfamily ACCIPITRINAE: Kites, Eagles, and Hawks from p. 87, and delete the heading Suborder FALCONES: Caracaras and Falcons from p. 105.

    pp. 86–87. Change the heading Subfamily PANDIONINAE: Ospreys to Family: PANDIONIDAE: Ospreys. After the new heading, insert the following:

    Notes.—Previously considered a subfamily of the Accipitridae (AOU 1998), the Osprey is returned to family status because of its genetic and morphological distinctiveness (Helbig et al. 2005, Lerner and Mindell 2005, Ericson et al. 2006, Griffiths et al. 2007, Hackett et al. 2008).

    Move the new family and its included genus and species accounts from pp. 86–87 to a position following the account for Sarcoramphuspapa.

    pp. 111–112. After the account for Falco mexicanus, insert the heading:

    Order EURYPYGIFORMES: Sunbittern and Kagu

  • After this heading, insert the following:

  • Notes.—Genetic data indicate that the Sunbittern and Kagu, previously considered part of the Gruiformes, form a relatively ancient lineage not closely related to any other group of extant birds (Fain and Houde 2004, Ericson et al. 2006, Hackett et al. 2008). Morphological data (Livezey and Zusi 2007) also provide support for a sister relationship between these species.

    Move the heading Family EURYPYGIDAE: Sunbitterns and the genus and species accounts included under this heading from p. 139 to a position following the newly inserted order.

  • p. 181. Before the account for Glareola maldivarum, insert the following new account:

    Glareola pratincola (Linnaeus). Collared Pratincole.

    • Hirundo Pratincola Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat., (ed. 12) 1:345. (Shores of southern Europe and in Austria; restricted to Austria, B.O.U. 1915.)

    • Habitat.—Nests on extensive flat, dry terrain with low or no vegetation; outside breeding season, also salt pans, moist meadows, fallow fields, lagoons.

    • Distribution.Breeds locally from southwestern Europe east to Moldavia, southern Ukraine, eastern Kazakhstan, Afghanistan, and Pakistan, and in northern Africa and the Middle East. Resident locally in Africa south of the Sahara.

      Migratory Eurasian populations winter mainly in Africa north of the Equator.

      Rare or casual in central and northern Europe, including the United Kingdom and Scandinavia, and in Madeira, the Canary Islands, the Cape Verde Islands, southwestern India, and southern Sri Lanka.

      Accidental in Iceland and possibly Brazil.

      Accidental in the Lesser Antilles (Barbados; 3 November 1996–24 June 1997, photograph; Buckley et al. 2009).

    p. 272. Caprimulgus arizonae is separated from C. vociferus. Revise the account for C. vociferus as follows: Change English name to Eastern Whip-poor-will. Change Habitat to: Mainly deciduous and mixed forest with open understory; in migration and winter in mixed and evergreen forests and woodland (Tropical to Temperate zones). Distribution is as for vociferus group, except: in winter distribution change “from northern Mexico (Sonora eastward)” to “from northeastern Mexico,” deleting mention of Sonora, and add “and in Arizona” to the end of the sentence on accidental occurrence. Change Notes to: Formerly included C. arizonae under the English name Whip-poor-will, but now separated on the basis of differences in vocalizations (Hardy et al. 1988, Cink 2002) and mitochondrial and nuclear DNA (Han et al. 2010); the two species also differ in morphology (Phillips et al. 1964, Cink 2002) and egg pigmentation (Phillips et al. 1964).

    Following the account for C. vociferus, insert the following:

    Caprimulgus arizonae Brewster. Mexican Whip-poor-will.

  • Caprimulgus vociferus arizonae Brewster, 1881, Bull. Nuttall Orn. Club 6:69. (Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona.)

  • Habitat.—Pine Forest, Pine-Oak Forest; in winter also Montane Evergreen Forest, Tropical Deciduous Forest (1,400–3,000 m; locally to 500 m in winter; Subtropical and Temperate zones).

  • Distribution.Breeds in the mountains of southern California (probably in San Gabriel, San Bernardino, San Jacinto, and Clark mountains) and from southern Nevada (Sheep Mountains and possibly Spring Mountains), northern Arizona, central New Mexico, and extreme western Texas south through the highlands of Mexico, Guatemala, and El Salvador to Honduras, also (probably) in southern Baja California.

    Winters from central Mexico south through the breeding range to Honduras; northern and southern limits of wintering range of migratory population poorly known.

    Reports from northwestern California, northwestern Montana, and central Colorado may represent this species but require confirmation.

  • Notes.—See comments under C. vociferus.

  • p. 315. Trogon chionurus is recognized as distinct from T. viridis, following the AOU South American Classification Committee (Remsen et al. 2010). Replace the account for T. viridis with the following:

    Trogon chionurus Sclater and Salvin. White-tailed Trogon.

  • Trogon chionurus Sclater and Salvin, 1871, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1870), p. 843. (Lion Hill, Canal Zone, Panama.)

  • Habitat.—Tropical Lowland Evergreen Forest (0–1,300 m; Tropical and lower Subtropical zones).

  • Distribution.Resident in Panama, on the Caribbean slope from near the Costa Rican border east through San Blas, and on the Pacific slope east from the Tuira Valley to Colombia (west of the Eastern Andes) and Ecuador west of the Andes.

  • Notes.—Formerly considered conspecific with T. viridis Linnaeus, 1766 [Green-backed Trogon] but considered a separate species on the basis of differences in vocalizations (Ridgely and Greenfield 2001) and mitochondrial DNA, which suggests that chionurus is more closely related to T. bairdii than to T. viridis (DaCosta and Klicka 2008).

  • pp. 315–316. Trogon caligatus is recognized as distinct from T. violaceus, following the AOU South American Classification Committee (Remsen et al. 2010). Replace the account for T. violaceus with the following:

    Trogon caligatus Gould. Gartered Trogon.

  • Trogon caligatus Gould, 1838, Monogr. Trogonidae, pt. 3, pl. [1] and text [= pl. 7 of volume]. (No type locality, but plate agrees with specimens from the Magdalena Valley, Colombia.)

  • Habitat.—Tropical Lowland Evergreen Forest, Secondary Forest, Tropical Deciduous Forest (0–1,800 m; Tropical and lower Subtropical zones).

  • Distribution.Resident in Mexico from San Luis Potosí, Puebla, Veracruz, and Oaxaca south along both slopes of Middle America (including the Yucatan Peninsula) to Panama and northern Colombia, east to northwestern Venezuela, and south to northwestern Peru.

  • Notes.—Formerly considered conspecific with T. violaceus Gmelin, 1788 [Violaceous Trogon] but separated on the basis of differences in vocalizations (Ridgely and Greenfield 2001) and mitochondrial DNA, which suggests that T. caligatus and T. violaceus are not sister taxa (DaCosta and Klicka 2008).

  • p. 317. The extralimital species Trogon mesurus is recognized as distinct from T. melanurus, following the AOU South American Classification Committee (Remsen et al. 2010). In the account for T. melanurus, remove “and west of the Andes in western Ecuador and northwestern Peru” from the Distribution of the melanurus group, and add the following sentence to the end of the Notes: Formerly included T. mesurus Cabanis and Heine, 1863 [Ecuadorian Trogon] of western Ecuador and northwestern Peru but separated on the basis of differences in vocalizations (Ridgely and Greenfield 2001) and mitochondrial DNA, which suggests that T. mesurus and T. melanurus are not sister species (DaCosta and Klicka 2008).

    p. 328. Change the heading Family RAMPHASTIDAE: New World Barbets and Toucans to Family RAMPHASTIDAE: Toucans, and move the new heading to p. 329 to replace the heading Subfamily RAMPHASTINAE: Toucans. Change the Notes under this heading to read: See comments under Semnornithidae. Change the heading Subfamily CAPITONINAE: New World Barbets to Family CAPITONIDAE: New World Barbets, and change the heading Subfamily SEMNORNITHINAE: Toucan-Barbets to Family SEMNORNITHIDAE: Toucan-Barbets. Under the heading Family SEMNORNITHIDAE: Toucan-Barbets, insert the following:

    Notes.—Genetic data (Barker and Lanyon 2000, Moyle 2004) indicate that Semnornis cannot be placed reliably in either the Capitonidae or Ramphastidae, is roughly as old as either group, and may even be the sister to both.

    Under the heading Family CAPITONIDAE: Toucan-Barbets, insert the following:

    Notes.—See comments under Semnornithidae.

    p. 377. After the account for Elaenia flavogaster, insert the following new account:

    Elaenia albiceps (d'Orbigny and Lafresnaye). White-crested Elaenia.

    • M[uscipeta] albiceps d'Orbigny and Lafresnaye, 1837, Mag. Zool. [Paris], 7, cl. 2, p. 47. (part, Yungas, Bolivia; types from Yungas, Bolivia, fide Hellmayr, 1925, Novit. Zool. 32:28.)

    • Habitat.—Southern Temperate Forest, Montane Evergreen Forest Edge, Secondary Forest, Semihumid/Humid Montane Scrub (0–3,500 m; Tropical to Temperate zones).

    • Distribution.Resident [albiceps group] in the Andes from southern Colombia to western Bolivia.

    • Breeds [modesta group] in western Peru and northern Chile; [chilensis group] from central and southern Chile and central Argentina south to Tierra del Fuego.

      Winters [modesta group] mostly in Andean foothills and base of the Andes in eastern Peru, some also resident in northern Chile; [chilensis group] lower Andean slopes from western Bolivia north to Ecuador, a few to Amazonia and eastern Brazil, possibly eastern Colombia; chilensis group is highly migratory.

      Casual [chilensis group] to the Falkland Islands; recorded at sea in the Drake Channel.

      Accidental [chilensis group] at South Padre Island, Cameron County, Texas (9–10 February 2008; photos, spectrograms of calls; Reid and Jones 2009).

    • Notes.—Vocalizations indicate that multiple species are likely involved, as do the genetic data of Rheindt et al. (2009), who recommended that the albiceps and chilensis groups be treated as separate species.

    p. 411. A record of the Crowned Slaty Flycatcher, Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus, in the United States is recognized, and the hyphen is removed from the name, following Remsen et al. (2010). This species was added to the list in the 50th supplement (Chesser et al. 2009). After the paragraph detailing the Panama record add the following new paragraph: Accidental in southwestern Louisiana (Peveto Beach Woods, near Johnsons Bayou, Cameron Parish, 3 June 2008; Conover and Myers 2009).

    pp. 420–423. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences (Ohlson et al. 2007) has shown that relationships among North American genera of the family Cotingidae are not properly reflected in the linear sequences of previous classifications, and that the genus Lipaugus, previously considered incertae sedis, is a member of the Cotingidae. Their phylogenetic conclusions result in a new sequence of genera, as follows:

    • Querula

    • Cephalopterus

    • Cotinga

    • Lipaugus

    • Procnias

    • Carpodectes

    Under the heading Family COTINGIDAE: Cotingas, insert the following:

    Notes.—Sequence of genera follows Ohlson et al. (2007).

    p. 436. Throughout the account for Vireo gilvus, change the spelling of swainsonii to swainsoni. This follows the finding of David et al. (2009) that the latter is the correct spelling under Article 24.2.4 of the Code (International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1999).

    pp. 443–444. The genus Psilorhinus, now in the synonymy of Cyanocorax, is restored for the species morio. Remove the citation for Psilorhinus from Cyanocorax and insert the following after the account for Calocitta formosa:

    Genus PSILORHINUS Rüppell

  • Psilorhinus Rüppell, 1837, Mus. Senckenb. 2(2):188. Type, by monotypy, Psilorhinus mexicanus Rüppell = Pica mono Wagler.

  • Notes.—Formerly merged with the genus Cyanocorax (Hardy 1969; AOU 1983, 1998), but now treated as separate on the basis of genetic (Saunders and Edwards 2000, Bonaccorso and Peterson 2007) and morphological (Sutton and Gilbert 1942) data.

    Change Cyanocorax morio (Wagler) to Psilorhinus morio (Wagler) and move the account to follow the heading Genus PSILORHINUS Rüppell and its citation and Notes.

  • pp. 442–448. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences (Bonaccorso and Peterson 2007) has shown that relationships among New World genera of jays (family Corvidae) are not properly reflected in the linear sequences of previous classifications. Their phylogenetic conclusions result in a new sequence of genera, as follows:

    • Cyanolyca

    • Calocitta

    • Psilorhinus

    • Cyanocorax

    • Gymnorhinus

    • Cyanocitta

    • Aphelocoma

    Under the heading Family CORVIDAE: Crows and Jays on p. 441, insert the following:

    Notes.—Sequence of New World genera of jays follows Bonaccorso and Peterson (2007).

    pp. 445–446. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences (Bonaccorso 2009) has shown that relationships among members of the genus Cyanolyca are not properly reflected in the linear sequences of previous classifications. Her conclusions result in a new sequence of species, as follows:

    • Cyanolyca pumilo

    • Cyanolyca argentigula

    • Cyanolyca mirabilis

    • Cyanolyca nana

    • Cyanolyca cucullata

    Under the heading Genus CYANOLYCA Cabanis, insert the following:

    Notes.—Sequence of species derived from phylogenetic data in Bonaccorso (2009).

    pp. 452–453. Chasiempis sclateri and C. ibidis are separated from C. sandwichensis. Insert new accounts for C. sclateri and C. ibidis and revise the account for C. sandwichensis as follows:

    Chasiempis sclateri Ridgway. Kauai Elepaio.

  • Chasiempis sclateri Ridgway, 1882, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 4:337–338. (Kauai, Hawaiian Islands.)

  • Habitat.—Montane wet and mesic forest, primarily in areas dominated by native vegetation.

  • Distribution.Resident on the island of Kauai in the Hawaiian Islands.

  • Notes.—See comments under C. sandwichensis.

  • Chasiempis ibidis Stejneger. Oahu Elepaio.

  • Chasiempis ibidis Stejneger, 1887, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 10:75– 102. (Oahu, Hawaiian Islands.)

    Chasiempis gayi Wilson, 1891, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pp. 164–166.

  • Habitat.—Lowland and montane wet and mesic forest, often in areas dominated by alien vegetation.

  • Distribution.Resident on the island of Oahu in the Hawaiian Islands.

  • Notes.—See comments under C. sandwichensis. Formerly known as C. gayi Wilson.

  • Chasiempis sandwichensis (Gmelin). Hawaii Elepaio.

  • Muscicapa sandwichensis Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat. 1(2):945. Based on the “Sandwich Fly-catcher” Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds 2(1):344. (in insulis Sandwich = Hawaii.)

    Turdus sandwichensis Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat. 1(2):813. Based on the “Sandwich Thrush” Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds 2(1):39. Subjective synonym of Muscicapa sandwichensis Gmelin, 1789; see Olson, 1989, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 102:555–558.

  • Habitat.—Lowland and montane wet, mesic, and dry forest, primarily in areas dominated by native vegetation.

  • Distribution.Resident on the island of Hawaii in the Hawaiian Islands.

  • Notes.—Formerly included C. sclateri and C. ibidis, now treated as separate species on the basis of differences in vocalizations (VanderWerf 2007); morphology, ecology, and behavior (Pratt et al. 1987, Conant et al. 1998, VanderWerf 1998); and mtDNA (VanderWerf et al. 2010).

  • p. 477. Records of the Sinaloa Wren, Thryothorus sinaloa, in the United States are recognized. After the last sentence in the Distribution account, add the following new paragraph: Casual in southeastern Arizona (near Patagonia, Santa Cruz County, 25 August 2008 through August 2009, Brown and Baxter 2009, photo; near Fort Huachuca, Cochise County, 14–18 April 2009 [North American Birds 63:479, photo]).

    p. 482. Troglodytes pacificus and T. hiemalis are separated from T. troglodytes. Delete the account for T. troglodytes and replace it with new accounts for T. pacificus and T. hiemalis as follows:

    Troglodytes pacificus Baird. Pacific Wren.

  • Troglodytes hyemalis, var. pacificus Baird, 1864, Rev. Amer. Birds 1:145. (Simiahmoo, Puget Sound, Washington.)

  • Habitat.—Coniferous (including spruce, Douglas-fir, hemlock, and redwood) and mixed forests, primarily with dense understory, often near water, and maritime heath near seaside cliffs in southwestern Alaska.

  • Distribution.Breeds from the Alaska Pacific coast (from the Aleutians east, including the Pribilof Islands) and coastal and central British Columbia (including Queen Charlotte and Vancouver islands) south to central California (San Luis Obispo County, and the western slope of the central Sierra Nevada), northeastern Oregon, central Idaho, northern Utah, western Montana, and southwestern Alberta. Reports of singing birds in northern Arizona, northern New Mexico, and the Rocky Mountains of Colorado are presumed to refer to this species, but confirmation is required.

    Winters in breeding area and south to southern California, southern Arizona, and southern New Mexico (rare). Sight reports from Sonora probably represent pacificus rather than hiemalis, but confirmation is required.

    Accidental in northern Alaska (Point Barrow).

  • Notes.—Formerly included in T. troglodytes (Linnaeus 1758) [Eurasian Wren], but here considered specifically distinct on the basis of differences in vocalizations (Kroodsma 1980, Hejl et al. 2002) and mitochondrial DNA (Drovetski et al. 2004). Formerly considered conspecific with T. hiemalis but separated on the basis of the absence of free interbreeding and maintenance of genetic integrity in their contact zone (Toews and Irwin 2008).

  • Troglodytes hiemalis Vieillot. Winter Wren.

  • Troglodytes hiemalis Vieillot, 1819, Nouv. Dict. Hist. Nat., nouv. éd., 34:514. (Nova Scotia and New York; restricted to Nova Scotia by Oberholser, 1902, Auk 19:178.)

  • Habitat.—Coniferous forest (especially spruce and fir) and mixed forests, primarily with dense understory; in migration and winter also in deciduous forest and woodland with dense undergrowth and tree-falls, dense hedgerows, and brushy fields.

  • Distribution.Breeds from northeastern British Columbia, northern Alberta, central Saskatchewan, central Manitoba, northern Ontario, central Quebec, extreme southern Labrador, and Newfoundland south to southeastern Manitoba, northcentral and northeastern Minnesota, southern Wisconsin, central Michigan, southern Ontario, northeastern Ohio, in the Appalachians through eastern West Virginia, western Maryland, western Virginia, eastern Tennessee, and western North Carolina to northeastern Georgia, and to northern Pennsylvania, northern New Jersey, and southeastern New York.

    Winters from eastern Colorado, southern Nebraska, southern Minnesota, eastern Iowa, southern Michigan, southern Ontario, central New York, and Massachusetts (casually farther north to southern Quebec and Newfoundland) south to California (casual), Arizona (casual) and southern New Mexico, Nuevo Leon (casual in Coahuila), southern Texas, the Gulf coast, and central (perhaps casually southern) Florida.

  • Notes.—See comments under T. pacificus.

  • p. 489. The Sylviidae as currently classified is not a monophyletic group (Cibois 2003, Barker 2004, Barker et al. 2004, Alström et al. 2006, Johansson et al. 2008, Fregin et al. 2009, Gelang et al. 2009). Below we follow Alström et al. (2006) in recognizing several new families primarily composed of species formerly considered sylviid. These actions result in the addition of five families (Cettiidae, Phylloscopidae, Acrocephalidae, Donacobiidae, Megaluridae) to the check-list, the elevation of one subfamily to family (Polioptilidae), and changes to the composition of two existing families (Sylviidae, Timaliidae):

    After the account for Regulus calendula on p. 488, insert the heading:

    Family CETTIIDAE: Bush Warblers

  • Insert the following under the heading:

  • Notes.—See comments under Family Sylviidae.

    Move the heading Genus CETTIA Bonaparte, its citation, and its included species from p. 489 to follow this newly inserted family.

  • After the account for Cettia diphone, insert the heading:

    Family PHYLLOSCOPIDAE: Leaf Warblers

  • Insert the following under the heading:

  • Notes.—See comments under Family Sylviidae.

    Move Genus PHYLLOSCOPUS Boie, its citation, and its included species from pp. 490–491 to follow this newly inserted family.

    Change the heading Family SYLVIIDAE: Old World Warblers and Gnatcatchers to Family SYLVIIDAE: Sylviid Warblers, delete the heading Subfamily SYLVIINAE: Old World Warblers, and move the modified heading from p. 489 to a position following the account for Phylloscopus borealis. Change the Notes under this family heading to:

  • Notes.—The family Sylviidae formerly included members of the Cettiidae, Phylloscopidae, Acrocephalidae, Megaluridae, and Polioptilidae (AOU 1998). Results of several genetic studies (Cibois 2003, Barker 2004, Barker et al. 2004, Alström et al. 2006, Johansson et al. 2008, Fregin et al. 2009, Gelang et al. 2009) indicated that the former Sylviidae is not a monophyletic group. The well-sampled phylogeny of Alström et al. (2006) showed that many taxa formerly classified as sylviid are more closely related to species from other families (e.g., Timaliidae) than to other groups in the former Sylviidae.

  • Move Genus SYLVIA Scopoli, its citation, and its included species from p. 491 to follow this newly modified family. Move Genus CHAMAEA Gambel, its citation, and its included species from p. 514 to a position following the account for Sylvia curruca. Change Notes for Genus CHAMAEA Gambel to the following: Formerly placed in the monotypic family Chamaeidae (AOU 1957) and in the Timaliidae (AOU 1998); see Alström et al. (2006) for placement in the Sylviidae.

    Move the heading Family ZOSTEROPIDAE: White-eyes and the genus and species included under this heading from p. 515 to a position following the account for Chamaea fasciata.

    Move the heading Family TIMALIIDAE: Babblers and the genera and species included under this heading (except for Chamaea) from pp. 513–514 to a position following the account for Zosterops japonicus. Delete Notes under this family heading.

    After the account for Leiothrix lutea, insert the heading:

    Family ACROCEPHALIDAE: Reed Warblers

  • Insert the following under the heading:

  • Notes.—See comments under Family Sylviidae.

  • Move Genus ACROCEPHALUS Naumann and Naumann, its citation, and its included species from p. 490 to follow this newly inserted family.

    After the account for Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, insert the heading:

    Family DONACOBIIDAE: Donacobius

  • Move Genus DONACOBIUS Swainson, its citation, and its included species from Genus INCERTAE SEDIS to follow this newly inserted family. Insert the following at the end of the account for Donacobius atricapilla:

  • Notes.—Formerly placed in the Mimidae (Mayr and Greenway 1960) or Troglodytidae (AOU 1983, 1998) or considered incertae sedis, this New World endemic forms part of the sylvioid radiation (Alström et al. 2006, Johansson et al. 2008, Gelang et al. 2009). We follow Aleixo and Pacheco (2006) and Remsen et al. (2010) in placing this biogeographically and biologically distinctive species in the monotypic family Donacobiidae.

  • After the account for Donacobius atricapilla, insert the heading:

    Family MEGALURIDAE: Grassbirds

  • Insert the following under the heading:

  • Notes.—See comments under Family Sylviidae.

  • Move Genus LOCUSTELLA Kaup, its citation, and its included species from p. 489 to follow this newly inserted family.

    Change the heading Subfamily POLIOPTILINAE: Gnatcatchers and Gnatwrens to Family POLIOPTILIDAE: Gnatcatchers and Gnatwrens, and delete Notes under the subfamily heading. Insert the following under the new heading:

    Notes.—See comments under Family Sylviidae.

    Move this newly inserted family and its included genera and species from pp. 491–494 to a position following the account for Cyphorhinus phaeocephalus.

    p. 495. Before the account for Luscinia calliope, insert the following new account:

    Luscinia sibilans (Swinhoe). Rufous-tailed Robin.

  • Larvivora sibilans Swinhoe, 1863, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 292. (Macao, southeastern China.)

  • Habitat.—Breeds in mesic deciduous and coniferous woods with dense undergrowth. Winters in undergrowth of forest and dense secondary growth.

  • Distribution.Breeds in eastern Asia as far west as the upper Yenisey River and the Altai Mountains and east across Siberia and Russian Far East to the Amur River basin, Khabarovsk Kray, Sakhalin, and central eastern Kamchatka, and south to Transbaikalia and northern Manchuria.

    Winters primarily in southeastern China, mainly from the Yangtze valley south, and rarely or uncommonly south to Vietnam, Laos, and eastern Thailand.

    Migrates primarily in continental eastern Asia in Mongolia, eastern China, and Korea; rarely to Japan and Taiwan.

    Accidental in the United Kingdom and Poland.

    Casual in western Alaska (Attu Island, western Aleutians, 4 June 2008, specimen; and St. Paul Island, Pribilofs, 8–9 June 2008, photos; DeCicco et al. 2009). An earlier record from Attu Island on 4 June 2000 is now deemed acceptable, given the well-documented 2008 records (DeCicco et al. 2009).

  • Notes.—Also known as Swinhoe's Robin or Swinhoe's Pseudorobin.

  • pp. 532–534, 547. The name Vermivora pinus is changed to V. cyanoptera, following Olson and Reveal (2009). The following actions result from this information:

    Modify the citation for Genus VERMIVORA Swainson on p. 532 to:

    Vermivora Swainson, 1827, Philos. Mag. (n.s.) 1:434. Type, by monotypy, Sylvia solitaria Wilson = Vermivora cyanoptera Olson and Reveal.

    pp. 533–534. Change Vermivora pinus (Linnaeus) to Vermivora cyanoptera Olson and Reveal, and change the citation for the species to:

    Vermivora cyanoptera Olson and Reveal, 2009. Wilson Journ. Ornithol. 121:620. (eastern Pennsylvania.)

    Insert the following at the end of the Notes for this account: Formerly Vermivora pinus (Linnaeus), but see Olson and Reveal (2009), who showed that the 1766 Linnaean name Certhia pinus is a composite name based on illustrations of birds of two species, the Pine Warbler, now known as Dendroica pinus, and the Blue-winged Warbler, until now Vermivora pinus. They concluded that the name Certhia pinus applies to the Pine Warbler, and that the name Vermivora pinus (Linnaeus) is not available for the Blue-winged Warbler, nor is Sylvia solitaria (Wilson) or any other name. They proposed the new name Vermivora cyanoptera for this species.

    p. 547. Change Dendroica pinus (Wilson) to Dendroica pinus (Linnaeus) and change the citation for this species to:

    Certhia Pinus Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat. (ed. 12) 1:187. Based largely on “The Pine Creeper” of Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, Florida, and the Bahama Islands, vol. 1, part 4, pl. and text 61. (in America septentrionali = South Carolina; see Olson and Reveal 2009.)

    pp. 534–538. The genus Oreothlypis, now in the synonymy of Parula, is restored for the species gutturalis and superciliosa and newly used for the following species formerly placed in Vermivora: peregrina, celata, ruficapilla, virginiae, crissalis, and luciae. Remove the citation for Oreothlypis from Parula and insert the following after the account for Vermivora chrysoptera under the heading:

    Genus OREOTHLYPIS Ridgway

  • Oreothlypis Ridgway, 1884, Auk 1:169. Type, by original designation, Compsothlypis gutturalis Cabanis.

  • Notes.—Molecular studies (Avise et al. 1980, Lovette and Bermingham 2002, Klein et al. 2004, Lovette and Hochachka 2006) indicate that gutturalis and superciliosa are not closely related to true Parula (americana and pitiayumi), that the six species formerly placed in Vermivora are not closely related to true Vermivora (bachmanii, cyanoptera, and chrysoptera), and that the two former Parula species and six former Vermivora species form closely related sister groups.

  • Change the generic names of Vermivora peregrina, Vermivora celata, Vermivora ruficapilla, Vermivora virginiae, Vermivora crissalis, Vermivora luciae, Parula gutturalis, and Parula superciliosa to Oreothlypis and place those accounts in this sequence under the heading and Notes for Oreothlypis. For O. peregrina, O. celata, and O. luciae, add the following:

    Notes.—Formerly (AOU 1983, 1998) placed in the genus Vermivora; see comments under Oreothlypis.

    In the Notes for O. reficapilla, O. virginiae, and O. crissalis, make the appropriate changes in the generic abbreviations and add the following sentence at the end: Formerly (AOU 1983, 1998) placed in the genus Vermivora; see comments under Oreothlypis.

    Change the Notes for O. gutturalis to: Formerly (AOU 1983, 1998) placed in the genus Parula; see comments under Oreothlypis. Change the Notes for O. superciliosa to: Formerly (AOU 1983, 1998) placed in the genus Parula; see comments under Oreothlypis. Also known as Hartlaub's Warbler or Spot-breasted Warbler.

    pp. 555–556. Two species formerly placed in Seiurus, noveboracensis and motacilla, are transferred to the new genus Parkesia.

    After the account for Seiurus aurocapilla, insert the following heading and Notes:

    Genus PARKESIA Sangster

  • Parkesia Sangster, 2008, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club 128:213. Type, by original designation, Motacilla noveboracensis Gmelin.

  • Notes.—Genetic data (Avise et al. 1980, Lovette and Bermingham 2002, Klein et al. 2004, Lovette and Hochachka 2006) indicate that P. noveboracensis and P. motacilla, formerly (e.g., AOU 1998) placed in Seiurus, are not closely related to and do not form a monophyletic group with the type species of the genus, S. aurocapilla.

  • Change Seiurus noveboracensis to Parkesia noveboracensis and Seiurus motacilla to Parkesia motacilla and place those accounts in this sequence under the heading and Notes for Parkesia. Add the following to the accounts for both species:

    Notes.—Formerly (AOU 1983, 1998) placed in the genus Seiurus.

    p. 597. Change the spelling Acanthidops bairdii to Acanthidops bairdi, in the citation for the genus, the heading for the species, and the citation for the species. Add the following to the end of the species account:

    Notes.—The original spelling of the species name was bairdi (Ridgway 1882). The spelling bairdii (Paynter 1970) was an incorrect subsequent spelling (International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1999, Article 33.4) followed by most subsequent authors.

    p. 603. Recent mitochondrial genetic data (DaCosta et al. 2009) have shown that relationships among a portion of the North American genera of the family Emberizidae are not properly reflected in the linear sequences of previous classifications. Remove the genera Atlapetes, Pipilo, Aimophila, and Melozone, their citations, and the following species accounts from their current placement on pp. 601, 603–606, and 608–609, and insert them in the following sequence after the account for Arremonops conirostris:

    • Atlapetes albinucha

    • Atlapetes pileatus

    • Pipilo ocai

    • Pipilo chlorurus

    • Pipilo maculatus

    • Pipilo erythrophthalmus

    • Aimophila rufescens

    • Aimophila ruficeps

    • Aimophila notosticta

    • Melozone leucotis

    • Melozone biarcuata

    • Melozone kieneri

    Under the heading for the genus Atlapetes, insert the following:

    Notes.—The sequence of species from Atlapetes through Melozone is derived from the phylogenetic analysis of DaCosta et al.(2009).

    Add the following sentence to the Notes under the genus Pipilo: See comments under Atlapetes and Melozone.

    p. 606. Transfer four species of Pipilo (fuscus, albicollis, crissalis, and aberti) to the genus Melozone and insert them in the following sequence after the account for Melozone kieneri:

    • Melozone fusca

    • Melozone albicollis

    • Melozone crissalis

    • Melozone aberti

    Under the heading for the genus Melozone, add the following:

    Notes.—Mitochondrial genetic data (DaCosta et al. 2009) have shown that the genus Pipilo comprised two unrelated groups, one consisting of ocai, chlorurus, maculatus, and erythrophthalmus, the other of the “brown towhee” group:fuscus, albicollis, crissalis, and aberti. The same study revealed that Melozone kieneri forms a monophyletic group with the brown towhees, and that M. leucotis and M. biarcuata are closely related to this group. Although DaCosta et al. (2009) suggested that kieneri, fuscus, albicollis, crissalis, and aberti be transferred to the genus Pyrgisoma, thereby splitting Melozone kieneri from its congeners, we have taken a more conservative approach, consistent with phenotypic similarities between M. kieneri and M. biarcuata (e.g, they were treated as conspecific by Hellmayr [1938]), and merged the brown towhees into Melozone. Insert the following sentence at the beginning of the Notes for M. albicollis, M. crissalis, and M. fusca: Formerly (AOU 1983, 1998) placed in the genus Pipilo. Insert the following at the end of the account for M. aberti:

    Notes.—Formerly (AOU 1983, 1998) placed in the genus Pipilo.

    pp. 606. Recent mitochondrial genetic data (DaCosta et al. 2009) have shown that the North American species of the broadly defined genus Aimophila belong to four distinct lineages: (1) notosticta, ruficeps, and rufescens; (2) aestivalis, cassinii, botterii, humeralis, mystacalis, and ruficauda; (3) carpalis and sumichrasti; and (4) quinquestriata. This arrangement is generally consistent with previous work on morphology and vocalizations (e.g., Ridgway 1901, Storer 1955, Wolf 1977).

    The type species of Aimophila is rufescens, so the name Aimophila stays with lineage 1 above. Some analyses of DaCosta et al. (2009) placed lineages 2 and 3 above as sisters, and the authors suggested that they remain congeneric pending further data. The genus name Peucaea has priority for this clade. Genetic data (DaCosta et al. 2009) indicate that Aimophila quinquestriata forms a clade with Amphispiza bilineata, and DaCosta et al. (2009) proposed that this species be returned to Amphispiza.

    The genus Peucaea is resurrected for the species aestivalis, cassinii, botterii, humeralis, mystacalis, ruficauda, carpalis, and sumichrasti. Insert the following heading in a position following the account for Melozone aberti:

    Genus PEUCAEA Audubon

  • Peucaea Audubon, 1839, Syn. Bds. N. Amer., p. 112. Type, by subsequent designation (Gray, 1841, List Gen. Bds., p. 60), Peucaea bachmanii Audubon = Fringilla aestivalis Lichtenstein.

  • Notes.—Formerly merged with Aimophila (AOU 1983, 1998), but now treated as a separate genus on the basis of genetic (DaCosta et al. 2009) and morphological and vocal (e.g., Ridgway 1901, Storer 1955, Wolf 1977) data. The sequence of species in Peucaea is derived from DaCosta et al. (2009).

  • Transfer Aimophila aestivalis, cassinii, botterii, humeralis, mystacalis, ruficauda, carpalis, and sumichrasti (pp. 607–608) to the genus Peucaea, and insert them in the following sequence:

    • Peucaea sumichrasti

    • Peucaea carpalis

    • Peucaea ruficauda

    • Peucaea humeralis

    • Peucaea mystacalis

    • Peucaea botterii

    • Peucaea cassinii

    • Peucaea aestivalis

    For each species, make the appropriate changes in generic abbreviations within the existing Notes and add the following sentence to the end of the Notes: Formerly (e.g., AOU 1983, 1998) placed in the genus Aimophila; see comments under Peucaea. Under the genus Aimophila replace the Notes with the following: See comments under Peucaea, Atlapetes, and Amphispiza quinquestriata.

    Move Aimophila quinquestriata (p. 609) to the genus Amphispiza, and move the account for this species to a position preceding the account for Amphispiza bilineata. Replace the Notes with: Formerly merged with Aimophila (e.g., AOU 1998), but now separated on the basis of genetic (DaCosta et al. 2009) and morphological and vocal (e.g., Ridgway 1901, Storer 1955, Wolf 1977) data. Genetic data (DaCosta et al. 2009) indicate that this species forms a clade with Amphispiza bilineata.

    pp. 626–627. Return Calcarius mccownii to the monotypic genus Rhynchophanes, delete the Notes under Calcarius and under the account for this species, remove the citation for Rhynchophanes from Calcarius, and insert the following heading and Notes prior to the account for R. mccownii:

    Genus RHYNCHOPHANES Baird

  • Rhynchophanes Baird, 1858, in Baird, Cassin, and Lawrence, Rep. Expl. and Surv. R. R. Pac., 9: xx, xxxviii, 432. Type, by monotypy, Plectrophanes maccowni [sic] Lawrence.

  • Notes.—Through the fifth edition of the check-list, the AOU (1957) recognized the monotypic genus Rhynchophanes for Calcarius mccownii. Subsequently (Paynter 1970; AOU 1983, 1998), Rhynchophanes was merged with Calcarius, evidently on the basis of a hybrids, R. mccownii × C. ornatus (Sibley and Pettingill 1955). Klicka et al. (2003), using mitochondrial data, found Calcarius as presently recognized to be paraphyletic: mccownii is more closely related to the Plectrophenax buntings than to the other species in Calcarius, consistent with some evidence of morphological differences among these three groups (Baird 1858).

  • pp. 626–628, 630. After the account for Peucedramus taeniatus on p. 532, insert the following heading and Notes:

    Family CALCARIIDAE: Longspurs and Snow Buntings

  • Notes.—Analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA (Yuri and Mindell 2002, Klicka et al. 2003, Alström et al. 2008) have shown that Calcarius, Rhynchophanes, and Plectrophenax are not closely allied to buntings in the genus Emberiza, nor to other members of the Emberizidae, where they were formerly placed (e.g., AOU 1983, 1998). Instead, species in these genera were found to form a well-supported clade that diverged early in the radiation of the New World nine-primaried oscines.

  • Move Genus CALCARIUS Bechstein, Genus RHYNCHOPHANES Baird, and Genus PLECTROPHENAX Stejneger, and their included species, from pp. 626–628 and 630 to follow this newly inserted family, in the following sequence:

    • Calcarius lapponicus

    • Calcarius ornatus

    • Calcarius pictus

    • Rhynchophanes mccownii

    • Plectrophenax nivalis

    • Plectrophenax hyperboreus

    p. 631. Change Family CARDINALIDAE: Cardinals, Saltators, and Allies to Family CARDINALIDAE: Cardinals and Allies. A modified English group name is needed because of the removal of the saltators (genus Saltator) from this family (Chesser et al. 2009).

    p. 642. After the account for Nesopsar nigerrimus, insert the following genus heading and species account:

    Genus CHRYSOMUS Swainson

  • Chrysomus Swainson, 1837, Nat. Hist. Classif. Bds. 2:274. Type, by original designation, Oriolus icterocephalus Linnaeus.

  • Chrysomus icterocephalus (Linnaeus). Yellow-hooded Blackbird.

    Oriolus icterocephalus Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat. (ed. 12), 1:163; based on “le Carouge à teste jaune de Cayenne” of Brisson, 1760, Ornithologie, 2:124, pl. 12, fig. 5. (Cayenne, French Guiana.)

  • Habitat.—Freshwater Marshes.

  • Distribution.Breeds and resident with local seasonal movements in lowlands of northwestern Colombia, where recorded nearly to border with Panama (also an isolated highland population near Bogotá), east through Venezuela, the Guianas, and Trinidad south to the mouth of the Amazon, Brazil, then west up the Amazon to its headwaters in northeastern Peru. A small introduced population has become established south of Lima, Peru.

    Casual in the Netherlands Antilles, where recorded on Bonaire and Curaçao.

    Accidental in the Lesser Antilles (Barbados; September 1887, specimen; Feilden 1889).

  • Notes.—Formerly placed in the genus Agelaius, but Lanyon and Omland (1999) showed that Agelaius as formerly constituted was not monophyletic and resurrected Chrysomus for the South American taxa. The Barbados specimen was correctly reported by Feilden (1889) but was inexplicably changed to Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus by Clark (1905) and subsequent authors. The specimen was believed lost but was relocated at the Cambridge University Museum, where its original identification was confirmed (Massiah and Frost 1997, Buckley et al. 2009).

  • In the Casual section for the account of Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus on p. 644, remove mention of Barbados. Insert the following at the end of this account:

    Notes.—Formerly considered casual in Barbados (AOU 1998), but the identification of the voucher specimen has been confirmed as Chrysomus icterocephalus (Massiah and Frost 1997, Buckley et al.2009).

    pp. 649–650. Icterus northropi, I. melanopsis, and I. portoricensis are treated as separate species from I. dominicensis. Revise the account of I. dominicensis and add new accounts for I. northropi, I. melanopsis, and I. portoricensis as follows:

    Icterus northropi Allen. Bahama Oriole.

  • Icterus northropi Allen, 1890, Auk 7:344. (Andros Island, Bahamas.)

  • Habitat.—Pine woodland.

  • Distribution.Resident on northern Bahama Islands of Andros, Great Abaco, and Little Abaco (believed extirpated on the latter two islands; White 1998).

  • Notes.—See comments under I. dominicensis.

  • Icterus melanopsis (Wagler). Cuban Oriole.

  • Icterus virescens (not of Daudin, 1800), Vigors, 1827, Zool. Journ. 3:441. (near Havana, Cuba.)

    Ps. [arocolius] melanopsis Wagler, 1929, Isis von Oken 22, col. 759.

  • Habitat.—Tropical Lowland Evergreen Forest Edge, Secondary Forest (0–1,300 m; Tropical Zone).

  • Distribution.Resident on Cuba, Isla de Pinos, and some northern keys (cayos Guillermo, Coco, Paredon Grande).

  • Notes.—See comments under I. dominicensis.

  • Icterus dominicensis (Linnaeus). Hispaniolan Oriole.

  • Oriolus dominicensis Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat. (ed. 12) 1: 163. (Based on “Le Carouge de S. Domingue” Brisson, Ornithologie 2: 121, pl. 12, fig. 3. (in Dominica = Hispaniola.)

  • Habitat.—Tropical Lowland Evergreen Forest Edge, Secondary Forest, Tropical Deciduous Forest (0–1,100 m; Tropical Zone).

  • Distribution.Resident on Hispaniola, including île de la Gonâve, île de la Tortue, île à Vache, and Isla Saona.

  • Notes.—Formerly included I. northropi, I. melanopsis, and I. portoricensis (AOU 1983, 1998), now treated as separate species because phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences suggest that they do not form a monophyletic group (Omland et al. 1999, Sturge et al. 2009); vocalizations also evidently differ strongly (Garrido et al. 2005:455).

  • Icterus portoricensis Bryant. Puerto Rican Oriole.

  • Icterus dominicensis, var. portoricensis Bryant, 1866, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. 10:254. (Porto Rico.)

  • Habitat.—Tropical Lowland Evergreen Forest Edge, Secondary Forest (0–850 m; Tropical Zone).

  • Distribution.Resident in Puerto Rico.

  • Notes.—See comments under I. dominicensis.

  • p. 684. Replace the heading Subfamily VIDUINAE: Whydahs with Family VIDUIDAE: Whydahs, and insert the following under the heading:

    Notes.—Formerly (AOU 1998) considered a subfamily of Estrildidae, but forms a distinct mtDNA clade and differs dramatically in behavioral and ecological traits, especially those related to breeding biology (Sorenson and Payne 2001). Family status follows their treatment in most recent worldwide lists (e.g., Dickinson 2003).

    Remove the heading Subfamily ESTRILDINAE: Estrildine Finches from p. 680. Insert the following under the heading Family ESTRILDIDAE: Estrildid Finches on p. 680:

    Notes.—See comments under Family Viduidae.

    p. 688. Delete the account for Oceanodroma monorhis from the Appendix (AOU 2000).

    p. 689. Delete the account for Platalea leucorodia from the Appendix.

    p. 696. Delete the account for Luscinia sibilans from the Appendix (Banks et al. 2004).

    pp. 705 ff. Make the following changes to the list of French names of North American birds:

    Insert the following names in the proper position as indicated by the text of this supplement:

    • Melanitta americana

    • Oceanodroma monorhis

    • Ixobrychus minutus

    • Ardea purpurea

    • Platalea leucorodia

    • PANDIONIDAE

    • Glareola pratincola

    • Caprimulgus arizonae

    • Trogon chionurus

    • Trogon caligatus

    • CAPITONIDAE

    • SEMNORNITHIDAE

    • Elaenia albiceps

    • Chasiempis sclateri

    • Chasiempis ibidis

    • Chasiempis sandwichensis

    • Troglodytes pacificus

    • Troglodytes hiemalis

    • POLIOPTILIDAE

    • CETTIIDAE

    • PHYLLOSCOPIDAE

    • ACROCEPHALIDAE

    • DONACOBIIDAE

    • MEGALURIDAE

    • Luscinia sibilans

    • CALCARIIDAE

    • Calcarius lapponicus

    • Calcarius ornatus

    • Calcarius pictus

    • Rhynchophanes mccownii

    • Plectrophenax nivalis

    • Plectrophenax hyperboreus

    • Aimophila rufescens

    • Aimophila ruficeps

    • Aimophila notosticta

    • Chrysomus icterocephalus

    • Icterus northropi

    • Icterus melanopsis

    • Icterus dominicensis

    • Icterus portoricensis

    • VIDUIDAE

    • Macreuse à bec jaune

    • Océanite de Swinhoe

    • Blongios nain

    • Héron pourpré

    • Spatule blanche

    • Glaréole à collier

    • Engoulevent d'Arizona

    • Trogon de Sclater

    • Trogon pattu

    • Élénie à cimier blanc

    • Monarque de Kauai

    • Monarque d'Oahu

    • Monarque d'Hawaï

    • Troglodyte de Baird

    • Troglodyte des forêts

    • Rossignol siffleur

    • Plectrophane lapon

    • Plectrophane à ventre noir

    • Plectrophane de Smith

    • Plectrophane de McCown

    • Plectrophane des neiges

    • Plectrophane blanc

    • Tohiroussâtre

    • Tohi à calotte fauve

    • Tohi d'Oaxaca

    • Carouge à capuchon

    • Oriole des Bahamas

    • Oriole de Cuba

    • Oriole d'Hispaniola

    • Oriole de Porto Rico

    Delete the following names:

    • Melanitta nigra

    • Trogon viridis

    • Trogon violaceus

    • Chasiempis sandwichensis

    • Troglodytes troglodytes

    • Aimophila rufescens

    • Aimophila ruficeps

    • Aimophila notosticta

    • Calcarius mccownii

    • Calcarius lapponicus

    • Calcarius pictus

    • Calcarius ornatus

    • Plectrophenax nivalis

    • Plectrophenax hyperboreus

    • Icterus dominicensis

    • Macreuse noire

    • Trogon à queue blanche

    • Trogon violacé

    • Monarque élépaïo

    • Troglodyte mignon

    • Bruant roussâtre

    • Bruant à calotte fauve

    • Bruant d'Oaxaca

    • Bruant de McCown

    • Bruant lapon

    • Bruant de Smith

    • Bruant à ventre noir

    • Bruant des neiges

    • Bruant blanc

    • Oriole à capuchon

    Delete the following species from the APPENDIX (Part 1):

    • Oceanodroma monorhis

    • Platalea leucorodia

    • Luscinia sibilans

    Change the following scientific names, retaining the French names:

    • Cyanocorax morio to Psilorhinus morio

    • Vermivora pinus to Vermivora cyanoptera

    • Vermivora peregrina to Oreothlypis peregrina

    • Vermivora celata to Oreothlypis celata

    • Vermivora ruficapilla to Oreothlypis ruficapilla

    • Vermivora virginiae to Oreothlypis virginiae

    • Vermivora crissalis to Oreothlypis crissalis

    • Vermivora luciae to Oreothlypis luciae

    • Parula gutturalis to Oreothlypis gutturalis

    • Parula superciliosa to Oreothlypis superciliosa

    • Seiurus noveboracensis to Parkesia noveboracensis

    • Seiurus motacilla to Parkesia motacilla

    • Acanthidops bairdii to Acanthidops bairdi

    • Pipilo albicollis to Melozone albicollis

    • Pipilo fuscus to Melozone fusca

    • Pipilo crissalis to Melozone crissalis

    • Pipilo aberti to Melozone aberti

    • Aimophila sumichrasti to Peucaea sumichrasti

    • Aimophila carpalis to Peucaea carpalis

    • Aimophila ruficauda to Peucaea ruficauda

    • Aimophila humeralis to Peucaea humeralis

    • Aimophila mystacalis to Peucaea mystacalis

    • Aimophila botterii to Peucaea botterii

    • Aimophila cassinii to Peucaea cassinii

    • Aimophila aestivalis to Peucaea aestivalis

    • Aimophila quinquestriata to Amphispiza quinquestriata

    Change the sequence of families from PHAETHONTIDAE to CICONIIDAE (including in APPENDIX [Part 1]) to the following sequence, with no change in French names:

    • PHAETHONTIDAE

    • CICONIIDAE

    • FREGATIDAE

    • SULIDAE

    • PHALACROCORACIDAE

    • ANHINGIDAE

    • PELECANIDAE

    • ARDEIDAE

    • THRESKIORNITHIDAE

    Move Pandion haliaetus to the newly inserted family PANDIONIDAE.

    Move family EURYPYGIDAE and its included species, to follow Falco mexicanus.

    Move Lipaugus unirufus to COTINGIDAE to precede Procnias tricarunculatus.

    Change the sequence of genera of COTINGIDAE as indicated by the text of this supplement.

    Change the sequence of genera from Cyanocitta to Gymnorhinus as indicated by the text of this supplement.

    Change the sequence of species in Cyanolyca as indicated by the text of this supplement.

    Move newly inserted family POLIOPTILIDAE and its included species to follow Cyphorhinus phaeocephalus.

    Change the sequence of families from SYLVIIDAE to ZOSTEROPIDAE, including newly inserted families CETTIIDAE, PHYLLOSCOPIDAE, ACROCEPHALIDAE, DONACOBIIDAE, and MEGALURIDAE, to:

    • CETTIIDAE

    • PHYLLOSCOPIDAE

    • SYLVIIDAE

    • ZOSTEROPIDAE

    • TIMALIIDAE

    • ACROCEPHALIDAE

    • DONACOBIIDAE

    • MEGALURIDAE

    • MUSCICAPIDAE

    • TURDIDAE

    and insert the species in the proper position as indicated by the text of this supplement.

    Change the sequence of species remaining in Pipilo as indicated by the text of this supplement.

    Change the sequence of genera from Atlapetes to Aimophila as indicated by the text of this supplement.

    Move Amphispiza quinquestriata to a position before Amphispiza bilineata.

    Move the three species of Calcarius, Rhynchophanes mccownii, and the two species of Plectrophenax to follow the newly inserted CALCARIIDAE.

    Proposals considered but not accepted by the committee included: recognition of multiple orders within the existing order Caprimulgiformes, division of Aphelocoma californica (Western Scrub-Jay) into three species, division of Toxostoma curvirostre (Curve-billed Thrasher) into two species, recognition of a new genus of warbler (Leiothlypis) for six species now included in Oreothlypis, and recognition of a new species of Red Crossbill, Loxia sinesciurus (South Hills Crossbill).

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    Normand David serves as the committee's advisor for classical languages in relation to scientific names, and Michel Gosselin is the authority for French names. We thank M. R. Browning, P. A. Buckley, K. L. Garrett, D. D. Gibson, F. B. Gill, S. N. G. Howell, D. E. Irwin, A. G. Knox, H. D. Pratt, M. R. Price, T. S. Schulenberg, D. P. L. Toews, E. A. VanderWerf, and J. M. Wunderle for assistance, suggestions, and comments. We are especially grateful to S. Billerman for preparing a number of detailed proposals on higherlevel classification.

    LITERATURE CITED

    1. A. Aleixo , and J. F. Pacheco . 2006. A family name for the monotypic oscine passerine genus Donacobius. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 14:172–173. Google Scholar

    2. P. Alström , P. G. P. Ericson , U. Olsson , and P. Sundberg . 2006. Phylogeny and classification of the avian superfamily Sylvioidea. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 38:381–397. Google Scholar

    3. P. Alström , U. Olsson , F. Lei , H. Wang , W. Gao , and P. Sundberg . 2008. Phylogeny and classification of the Old World Emberizini (Aves, Passeriformes). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 47:960–973. Google Scholar

    4. AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 1957. Check-list of North American Birds, 5th ed. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. Google Scholar

    5. AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 1983. Check-list of North American Birds, 6th ed. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. Google Scholar

    6. AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 1998. Check-list of North American Birds, 7th ed. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. Google Scholar

    7. AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 2000. Forty-second supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. Auk 117:847–858. Google Scholar

    8. J. C. Avise , J. C. Patton , and C. F. Aquadro . 1980. Evolutionary genetics of birds: Comparative molecular evolution in New World warblers and rodents. Journal of Heredity 71:303–310. Google Scholar

    9. S. F. Baird 1858. Pages 431–438 in Reports of explorations and surveys, to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, vol. 9 ( S. F. Baird , J. Cassin , and G. N. Lawrence , Eds.). Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. Google Scholar

    10. R. C Banks , C. Cicero , J. L. Dunn , A. W. Kratter , P. C. Rasmussen , J. V. Remsen Jr. , J. D. Rising , and D. F. Stotz . 2002. Forty-third supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. Auk 119:897–906. Google Scholar

    11. R. C. Banks , C. Cicero , J. L. Dunn , A. W. Kratter , P. C. Rasmussen , J. V. Remsen Jr. , J. D. Rising , and D. F. Stotz . 2004. Forty-fifth supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. Auk 121:985–995. Google Scholar

    12. F. K. Barker 2004. Monophyly and relationships of wrens (Aves: Troglodytidae): A congruence analysis of heterogeneous mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 31:486–504. Google Scholar

    13. F. K. Barker , A. Cibois , P. Schikler , J. Feinstein , and J. Cracraft . 2004. Phylogeny and diversification of the largest avian radiation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 101:11040–11045. Google Scholar

    14. F. K. Barker , and S. M. Lanyon . 2000. The impact of parsimony weighting schemes on inferred relationships among toucans and Neotropical barbets (Aves: Piciformes). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 15:215–234. Google Scholar

    15. D. Boertmann 1994. An annotated checklist to the birds of Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland, Bioscience 38:1–63. Google Scholar

    16. E. Bonaccorso 2009. Historical biogeography and speciation in the Neotropical highlands: Molecular phylogenetics of the jay genus Cyanolyca. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 50:618–632. Google Scholar

    17. E. Bonaccorso , and A. T. Peterson . 2007. A multilocus phylogeny of New World jay genera. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 42:467–476. Google Scholar

    18. E. S. Brinkley 1995. Dark-rumped petrels in the North Atlantic. Birding 27:95–97. Google Scholar

    19. M. C. Brown , and R. A. Baxter . 2009. First United States record of Sinaloa Wren (Thryothorus sinaloa). North American Birds 63:196–201. Google Scholar

    20. P. A. Buckley , E. B. Massiah , M. B. Hutt , F. G. Buckley , and H. F. Hutt . 2009. The Birds of Barbados. B.O.U Check-list No. 24. British Ornithologists' Union, Tring. Google Scholar

    21. C. Carboneras 1992. Family Procellariidae (petrels and shearwaters). Pages 216–257 in Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks ( J. del Hoyo , A. Elliott , and J. Sargatal , Eds.). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain. Google Scholar

    22. R. T. Chesser , R. C. Banks , F. K. Barker , C. Cicero , J. L. Dunn , A. W. Kratter , I. J. Lovette , P. C. Rasmussen , J. V. Remsen Jr. , J. D. Rising , D. F. Stotz , and K. Winker . 2009. Fiftieth supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. Auk 126:705–714. Google Scholar

    23. A. Cibois 2003. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeny of babblers (Timaliidae). Auk 120:35–54. Google Scholar

    24. C. L. Cink 2002. Whip-poor-will (Caprimulgus vociferus). In The Birds of North America, no. 620 ( A. Poole and F. Gill , Eds.). Birds of North America, Philadelphia. Google Scholar

    25. A. H. Clark 1905. Birds of the southern Lesser Antilles. Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History 32:203–312. Google Scholar

    26. M. Collinson , D. T. Parkin , A. G. Knox , G. Sangster , and A. J. Helbig . 2006. Species limits within the genus Melanitta, the scoters. British Birds 99:183–201. Google Scholar

    27. S. Conant , H. D. Pratt , and R. J. Shallenberger . 1998. Reflections on a 1975 expedition to the lost world of the Alaka'i and other notes on the natural history, systematics, and status of Kaua'i birds. Wilson Bulletin 110:1–22. Google Scholar

    28. P. E. Conover , and B. M. Myers . 2009. First United States record of Crowned Slaty-Flycatcher (Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus) from Louisiana. North American Birds 62:638–639. Google Scholar

    29. J. M. Dacosta , and J. Klicka . 2008. The Great American Interchange in birds: A phylogenetic perspective with the genus Trogon. Molecular Ecology 17:1328–1343. Google Scholar

    30. J. M. Dacosta , G. M. Spellman , P. Escalante , and J. Klicka . 2009. A molecular systematic revision of two historically problematic songbird clades: Aimophila and Pipilo. Journal of Avian Biology 40:206–216. Google Scholar

    31. N. David , E. C. Dickinson , and S. M. S. Gregory . 2009. Contributions to a list of first reviser actions: Ornithology. Zootaxa 2085:1–24. Google Scholar

    32. R. J. G. Dawson 1992. Blood, sweat and petrels. Birding World 5:443–444. Google Scholar

    33. L. H. Decicco , S. C. Heinl , and D. W. Sonneborn . 2009. First North American records of the Rufous-tailed Robin (Luscinia sibilans). Western Birds 40:237–241. Google Scholar

    34. E. C. Dickinson , Ed. 2003. The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World, 3rd ed. Christopher Helm, London. Google Scholar

    35. S. V. Drovetski , R. M. Zink , S. Rohwer , I. V. Fadeev , E. V. Nesterov , I. Karagodin , E. A. Koblik , and Y. A. Red'Kin . 2004. Complex biogeographic history of a Holarctic passerine. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 271: 545–551. Google Scholar

    36. S. P. Dudley , M. Gee , C. Kehoe , T. M. Melling , and THE BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION RECORDS COMMITTEE. 2006. The British List: A Checklist of Birds of Britain, 7th ed. Ibis 148:526– 563. Google Scholar

    37. P. G. P. Ericson , C. L. Anderson , T. Britton , A. Elzanowski , U. S. Johansson , M. Källersjö , J. I. Ohlson , T. J. Parsons , D. Zuccon , and G. Mayr . 2006. Diversification of Neoaves: Integration of molecular sequence data and fossils. Biology Letters 2:543–547. Google Scholar

    38. M. G. Fain , and P. Houde . 2004. Parallel radiations in the primary clades of birds. Evolution 58:2558–2573. Google Scholar

    39. H. Feilden 1889. On the birds of Barbados. Ibis 1889:477–503. Google Scholar

    40. R. L. Flood 2009. ‘All-dark’ Oceanodroma storm-petrels in the Atlantic and neighbouring seas. British Birds 102:365–385. Google Scholar

    41. S. Fregin , M. Haase , U. Olsson , and P. Alström . 2009. Multi-locus phylogeny of the family Acrocephalidae (Aves: Passeriformes)—The traditional taxonomy overthrown. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 52:866–878. Google Scholar

    42. O. H. Garrido , J. W. Wiley , and A. Kirkconnell . 2005. The genus Icterus in the West Indies. Ornitologia Neotropical 16: 449–470. Google Scholar

    43. M. Gelang , A. Cibois , E. Pasquet , U. Olsson , P. Alström , and P. G. P. Ericson . 2009. Phylogeny of babblers (Aves, Passeriformes): Major lineages, family limits and classification. Zoologica Scripta 38:225–236. Google Scholar

    44. C. S. Griffiths , G. F. Barrowclough , J. G. Groth , and L. A. Mertz . 2007. Phylogeny, diversity, and classification of the Accipitridae based on DNA sequences of the RAG-1 exon. Journal of Avian Biology 38:587–602. Google Scholar

    45. S. J. Hackett , R. T. Kimball , S. Reddy , R. C. K. Bowie , E. L. Braun , M. J. Braun , J. L. Chojnowski , W. A. Cox , K.-L. Han , J. Harshman , and Others . 2008. Aphylogenomic study of birds reveals their evolutionary history. Science 320:1763–1768. Google Scholar

    46. K.-L. Han , M. B. Robbins , and M. J. Braun . 2010. A multi-gene estimate of phylogeny in the nightjars and nighthawks (Caprimulgidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 55:443–453. Google Scholar

    47. J. W. Hardy 1969. A taxonomic revision of the New World jays. Condor 71:360–375. Google Scholar

    48. J. W. Hardy , B. B. Coffey Jr. , and G. B. Reynard . 1988. Voices of the New World Nightbirds, Owls, Nightjars, and Their Allies, 3rd ed. ARA Records, Gainesville, Florida. Google Scholar

    49. S. J. Hejl , J. A. Holmes , and D. E. Kroodsm A. 2002. Winter Wren (Troglodytes troglodytes). In The Birds of North America, no. 623 ( A. Poole and F. Gill , Eds.). Birds of North America, Philadelphia. Google Scholar

    50. A. J. Helbig , A. Kocum , I. Seibold , and M. J. Braun . 2005. A multi-gene phylogeny of aquiline eagles (Aves: Accipitriformes) reveals extensive paraphyly at the genus level. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 35:147–164. Google Scholar

    51. C. E. Hellmayr 1938. Catalogue of birds of the Americas and the adjacent islands. Field Museum of Natural History Zoological Series, vol. 13, part 11. Google Scholar

    52. S. N. G. Howell , and J. B. Patteson . 2008. A Swinhoe's Petrel off North Carolina, USA and a review of dark storm-petrel identification. Birding World 21:255–262. Google Scholar

    53. INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE. 1999. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, 4th ed. International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, London. Google Scholar

    54. U. S. Johansson , J. Fjeldså , and R. C. K. Bowie . 2008. Phylogenetic relationships within Passerida (Aves: Passeriformes): A review and a new molecular phylogeny based on three nuclear intron markers. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 48:858–876. Google Scholar

    55. M. Jollie 1976–1977. A contribution to the morphology and phylogeny of the Falconiformes. Evolutionary Theory 1:285–298, 2:115–300, 3:1–142. Google Scholar

    56. M. Kennedy , and H. G. Spencer . 2004. Phylogenies of the frigatebirds (Fregatidae) and tropicbirds (Phaethontidae), two divergent groups of the traditional order Pelecaniformes, inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 31:31–38. Google Scholar

    57. N. K. Klein , K. J. Burns , S. J. Hackett , and C. S. Griffiths . 2004. Molecular phylogenetic relationships among the wood warblers (Parulidae) and historical biogeography in the Caribbean Basin. Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 17:3–17. Google Scholar

    58. J. Klicka , R. M. Zink , and K. Winker . 2003. Longspurs and snow buntings: Phylogeny and biogeography of a high-latitude clade (Calcarius). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 26:165–175. Google Scholar

    59. D. E. Kroodsm A 1980. Winter wren singing behavior: A pinnacle of song complexity. Condor 82:357–365. Google Scholar

    60. S. M. Lanyon , and K. E. Omland . 1999. A molecular phylogeny of the blackbirds (Icteridae): Five lineages revealed by cytochrome-b sequence data. Auk 116:629–639. Google Scholar

    61. H. R. L. Lerner , and D. P. Mindell . 2005. Phylogeny of eagles, Old World vultures, and other Accipitridae based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 37:327–346. Google Scholar

    62. B. C. Livezey , and R. L. Zusi . 2007. Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. II. Analysis and discussion. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 149:1–95. Google Scholar

    63. I. J. Lovette , and E. Bermingham . 2002. What is a wood-warbler? Molecular characterization of a monophyletic Parulidae. Auk 119: 695–714. Google Scholar

    64. I. J. Lovette , and W. M. Hochachka . 2006. Simultaneous effects of phylogenetic niche conservatism and competition on avian community structure. Ecology 87:S14–S28. Google Scholar

    65. S. Marchant , and P. J. Higgins , Eds. 1990a. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds, vol. 1, part A: Ratites to Petrels. Oxford University Press, Melbourne, Australia. Google Scholar

    66. S. Marchant , and P. J. Higgins , Eds. 1990b. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic birds, vol. 1, part B: Australian Pelican to Ducks. Oxford University Press, Melbourne, Australia. Google Scholar

    67. E. Massiah , and M. Frost . 1997. The missing bird collection of Col. Feilden. Journal of the Barbados Museum and Historical Society 43:71–77. Google Scholar

    68. E. Mayr , and J. C. Greenway Jr. , Eds. 1960. Check-list of Birds of the World, vol. 9. Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Google Scholar

    69. E. Mayr , and L. L. Short . 1970. Species taxa of North American birds. Publications of the Nuttall Ornithological Club, no. 9. Google Scholar

    70. R. G. Moyle 2004. Phylogenetics of barbets (Aves: Piciformes) based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30:187–200. Google Scholar

    71. M. O'Brien , J. B. Patteson , G. L. Armistead , and G. B. Pearce . 1999. Swinhoe's Storm-Petrel: First North American photographic record. North American Birds 53:6–10. Google Scholar

    72. J. I. Ohlson , R. O. Prum , and P. G. P. Ericson . 2007. A molecular phylogeny of the cotingas (Aves: Cotingidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 42:25–37. Google Scholar

    73. S. L. Olson , and J. L. Reveal . 2009. Nomenclatural history and a new name for the Blue-winged Warbler (Aves: Parulidae). Wilson Journal of Ornithology 121:618–620. Google Scholar

    74. K. E. Omland , S. M. Lanyon , and S. J. Fritz . 1999. A molecular phylogeny of the New World orioles (Icterus): The importance of dense taxon sampling. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 12:224–239. Google Scholar

    75. R. S. Palmer , Ed. 1962. Handbook of North American Birds, vol. 1: Gaviiformes—Phoenicopteriformes. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut. Google Scholar

    76. J. B. Patteson , S. N. G. Howell , and K. Sutherland . 2009. Swinhoe's Storm-Petrel (Oceanodroma monorhis) off North Carolina. North American Birds 62:518–520. Google Scholar

    77. R. A. Paynter Jr. , Ed. 1970. Check-list of birds of the world, vol. 13. Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Google Scholar

    78. A. R. Phillips , J. T. Marshall , and G. Monson . 1964. The Birds of Arizona. University of Arizona Press, Tucson. Google Scholar

    79. B. Pranty , J. L. Dunn , S. C. Heinl , A. W. Kratter , P. E. Lehman , M. W. Lockwood , B. Mactavish , and K. J. Zimmer . 2009. Annual report of the ABA Checklist Committee, 2007–2008. Birding 41:38–43. Google Scholar

    80. H. D. Pratt , P. L. Bruner , and D. G. Berrett . 1987. A Field Guide to the Birds of Hawai'i and the Tropical Pacific. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. Google Scholar

    81. P. C. Rasmussen , and J. C. Anderton . 2005. Birds of South Asia: The Ripley Guide, vol. 2. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., and Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain. Google Scholar

    82. M. Reid , and D. Jones . 2009. First North American record of White-crested Elaenia (Elaenia albiceps chilensis) at South Padre Island, Texas. North American Birds 63:10–14. Google Scholar

    83. J. V. Remsen Jr., C. D. Cadena , A. Jaramillo , M. Nores , J. F. Pacheco , M. B. Robbins , T. S. Schulenberg , F. G. Stiles , D. F. Stotz , and K. J. Zimmer . 2010. A classification of the bird species of South America. American Ornithologists' Union. [Online.] Available at  www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htmlGoogle Scholar

    84. F. E. Rheindt , L. Christidis , and J. A. Norman . 2009. Genetic introgression, incomplete lineage sorting and faulty taxonomy create multiple cases of polyphyly in a montane clade of tyrant-flycatchers (Elaenia, Tyrannidae). Zoologica Scripta 38:143–153. Google Scholar

    85. R. S. Ridgely , and P. J. Greenfield . 2001. The Birds of Ecuador, vol. 1: Status, Distribution, and Taxonomy. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York. Google Scholar

    86. R. Ridgway 1882. Notes on some Costa Rican birds. Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum 4 (1881):333–337. Google Scholar

    87. R. Ridgway 1901. The Birds of North and Middle America. Bulletin of the U.S. National Museum, no. 50, part 1. Google Scholar

    88. G. Sangster 2009. Acoustic differences between the scoters Melanitta nigra nigra and M. n. americana. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 121:696–702. Google Scholar

    89. M. A. Saunders , and S. V. Edwards . 2000. Dynamics and phylogenetic implications of mtDNA control region sequences in New World jays (Aves: Corvidae). Journal of Molecular Evolution 51:97109. Google Scholar

    90. C. G. Sibley , and B. L. Monroe Jr. 1990. Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut. Google Scholar

    91. C. G. Sibley , and O. S. Pettingill Jr. 1955. A hybrid longspur from Saskatchewan. Auk 72:423–425. Google Scholar

    92. M. D. Sorenson , and R. B. Payne . 2001. A single ancient origin of brood parasitism in African finches: Implications for hostparasite coevolution. Evolution 55:2550–2567. Google Scholar

    93. R. W. Storer 1955. A preliminary study of the sparrows of the genus Aimophila. Condor 57:193–201. Google Scholar

    94. R. J. Sturge , F. Jacobsen , B. B. Rosensteel , R. J. Neale , and K. E. Omland . 2009. Colonization of South America from Caribbean islands confirmed by molecular phylogeny with increased taxon sampling. Condor 111:575–579. Google Scholar

    95. J. M. Sutton , and P. W. Gilbert . 1942. The Brown Jay's furcular pouch. Condor 44:160–165. Google Scholar

    96. D. P. L. Toews , and D. E. Irwin . 2008. Cryptic speciation in a Holarctic passerine revealed by genetic and bioacoustic analyses. Molecular Ecology 17:2691–2705. Google Scholar

    97. E. A. VanderWerf 1998. ‘Elepaio (Chasiempis sandwichensis). In The Birds of North America, no. 344 ( A. Poole and F. Gill , Eds.). Birds of North America, Philadelphia. Google Scholar

    98. E. A. VanderWerf 2007. Biogeography of ‘Elepaio: Evidence from inter-island song playbacks. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 119:325–333. Google Scholar

    99. E. A. VanderWerf , L. C. Young , N. W. Yeung , and D. B. Carlon . 2010. Stepping stone speciation in Hawaii's flycatchers: Molecular divergence supports new island endemics within the elepaio. Conservation Genetics 11: in press. Google Scholar

    100. M. Van Tuinen , D. B. Butvill , J. A. W. Kirsch , and S. B. Hedges . 2001. Convergence and divergence in the evolution of aquatic birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 268:1345–1350. Google Scholar

    101. A. W. White 1998. A Birder's Guide to the Bahama Islands (including Turks and Caicos). American Birding Association, Colorado Springs, Colorado. Google Scholar

    102. L. L. Wolf 1977. Species relationships in the avian genus Aimophila. Ornithological Monographs, no. 23. Google Scholar

    103. T. Yuri , and D. P. Mindell . 2002. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Fringillidae, “New World nine-primaried oscines” (Aves: Passeriformes). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 23:229–243. Google Scholar

    © 2010 by The American Ornithologists' Union. All rights reserved. Please direct all requests for permission to photocopy or reproduce article content through the University of California Press's Rights and Permissions website, http://www.ucpressjournals.com/reprintInfo.asp .
    R. Terry Chesser, Richard C. Banks, F. Keith Barker, Carla Cicero, Jon L. Dunn, Andrew W. Kratter, Irby J. Lovette, Pamela C. Rasmussen, J. V. Remsen, James D. Rising, Douglas F. Stotz, and Kevin Winker "Fifty-First Supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-List of North American Birds," The Auk 127(3), (1 July 2010). https://doi.org/10.1525/auk.2010.127.3.726
    Published: 1 July 2010
    JOURNAL ARTICLE
    19 PAGES


    SHARE
    ARTICLE IMPACT
    Back to Top