We present a systematic revision of the polytypic Spotted Antpitta (Grallariidae: Hylopezus macularius) based on morphometric, plumage, vocal, and molecular characters. Morphological and vocal analyses were based, respectively, on 97 specimens and 106 recordings. Molecular phytogenies were inferred on the basis of 1,352 base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA genes 16S, ND2, and cytochrome b from 30 specimens, including several outgroups. Our results revealed the existence of an undescribed taxon endemic to the Madeira—Xingu interfluvium, similar in morphology to paraensis, but vocally and genetically readily distinguished from the latter and any other taxon grouped under H. macularius. We also found that populations from the Negro River basin (currently treated in paraensis) and those from northern Peru and southern Venezuela (placed in diversus) should be treated as a single taxon, for which the name dilutus is available. Reconstructed phytogenies recovered, with overall strong support, the reciprocal monophyly among four main lineages of the Spotted Antpitta, three corresponding to already named taxa (dilutus, macularius, and paraensis), and one to the unnamed taxon, which we describe. We show that those four taxa are also mutually diagnosed by a combination of both vocal and morphological features, and we recommend treating them as separate species under alternative species concepts.
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