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1 July 2015 Fifty-sixth Supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union: Check-list of North American Birds
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This is the 15th supplement since publication of the 7th edition of the Check-list of North American Birds (American Ornithologists' Union [AOU] 1998). It summarizes decisions made between May 15, 2014, and April 15, 2015, by the AOU's Committee on Classification and Nomenclature—North and Middle America. The Committee has continued to operate in the manner outlined in the 42nd Supplement (AOU 2000).

Changes in this supplement include the following: (1) seven species (Alopochen aegyptiaca, Phoebastria irrorata, Pterodroma madeira, Syrigma sibilatrix, Patagioenas goodsoni, Campylorhynchus griseus, and Phoenicurus phoenicurus) are added to the main list on the basis of new distributional information, including two species transferred from the Appendix; (2) 11 species (Pterodroma heraldica, Puffinus newelli, Phaethornis mexicanus, Calliphlox lyrura, Himatione fraithii, Hemignathus hanapepe, H. affinis, Akialoa stejnegeri, A. lanaiensis, Loxops wolstenholmei, and L. ochraceus) are added to the main list due to splits from species already on the list; (3) one species name is changed (to Cranioleuca dissita) because of a split from an extralimital species; (4) the distributional statement of one species (Stercorarius skua) is changed because of a split from an extralimital species; (5) the distributional statements and English names of four species (Pterodroma arminjoniana, Hemignathus lucidus, Akialoa ellisiana, and Loxops coccineus) and the distributional statements of four others (Puffinus auricularis, Phaethornis longirostris, Calliphlox evelynae, and Himatione sanguinea) are changed as a result of taxonomic changes; (6) the scientific names of two species (Leptotila cassinii and Amazilia saucerottei) are corrected on the basis of evidence in their original descriptions; (7) the scientific names of two species (Hemignathus wilsoni and Chlorodrepanis stejnegeri) are changed following changes in generic assignment that affected the priority of their species names; (8) seven genera (Rupornis, Geranoaetus, Cryptopipo, Akialoa, Chlorodrepanis, Viridonia, and Spizelloides) are added as a result of splits from other genera, resulting in changes to 10 scientific names (Rupornis magnirostris, Geranoaetus albicaudatus, Cryptopipo holochlora, Akialoa obscura, A. ellisiana, Chlorodrepanis virens, C. flava, C. stejnegeri, Viridonia sagittirostris, and Spizelloides arborea); (9) one genus (Vestiaria) is lost by merger (into Drepanis) and the scientific name of one species (D. coccinea) is thereby changed; (10) the citation for one species (Pterodroma solandri) is corrected; and (11) two species (Anthropoides virgo and Grus monacha) are added to the Appendix. In addition, the English name of one species is transferred to another scientific name in the aftermath of a taxonomic change: Thus, Herald Petrel is now the English name for Pterodroma heraldica rather than for P. arminjoniana.

One new subfamily of Falconiformes is added and two subfamilies are deleted, one new family and three new subfamilies of Psittaciformes are added and two subfamilies are deleted, and one new subfamily is added to the Pipridae. New linear sequences are adopted for genera in the family Thraupidae and in the Hawaiian honeycreepers (Carduelinae, in part), and for species in the Buteo group (Accipitridae, in part) and in the genera Ramphocelus and Sporophila, all due to new phylogenetic data. The family placements of 22 genera (Volatinia, Sporophila, Melopyrrha, Tiaris, Loxipasser, Loxigilla, Euneornis, Melanospiza, Pinaroloxias, Haplospiza, Acanthidops, Diglossa, Sicalis, Emberizoides, Saltator, Coereba, Nesospingus, Phaenicophilus, Calyptophilus, Rhodinocichla, Mitrospingus, and Spindalis) are changed on the basis of new information on their phylogenetic relationships.

Literature that provides the basis for the Committee's decisions is cited at the end of this supplement, and citations not already in the Literature Cited of the 7th edition (with supplements) become additions to it. A list of the bird species known from the AOU Check-list area can be found at  http://checklist.aou.org/taxa.

The following changes to the 7th edition (page numbers refer thereto) and its supplements result from the Committee's actions:

pp. xvii–liv. Change the number in the title of the list of species to 2,116. Insert the following names in the proper position as indicated by the text of this supplement:

  • Alopochen aegyptiaca Egyptian Goose. (I)

  • Phoebastria irrorata Waved Albatross. (A)

  • Pterodroma madeira Zino's Petrel. (A)

  • Pterodroma heraldica Herald Petrel. (A)

  • Pterodroma arminjoniana Trindade Petrel.

  • Puffinus newelli Newell's Shearwater.

  • Syrigma sibilatrix Whistling Heron. (A)

  • Rupornis magnirostris Roadside Hawk.

  • Geranoaetus albicaudatus White-tailed Hawk.

  • Patagioenas goodsoni Dusky Pigeon. (A)

  • Leptotila cassinii Gray-chested Dove.

  • Phaethornis mexicanus Mexican Hermit.

  • Calliphlox lyrura Inagua Woodstar.

  • Amazilia saucerottei Steely-vented Hummingbird.

  • Herpetotherinae

  • PSITTACULIDAE

  • Psittaculinae

  • Agapornithinae

  • Loriinae

  • Cranioleuca dissita Coiba Spinetail.

  • Piprinae

  • Cryptopipo holochlora Green Manakin.

  • Campylorhynchus griseus Bicolored Wren.

  • Phoenicurus phoenicurus Common Redstart. (A)

  • Spizelloides arborea American Tree Sparrow.

  • Drepanis coccinea Iiwi. (H)

  • Himatione fraithii Laysan Honeycreeper. (H)

  • Hemignathus hanapepe Kauai Nukupuu. (H)

  • Hemignathus lucidus Oahu Nukupuu. (H)

  • Hemignathus affinis Maui Nukupuu. (H)

  • Hemignathus wilsoni Akiapolaau. (H)

  • Akialoa obscura Lesser Akialoa. (H)

  • Akialoa stejnegeri Kauai Akialoa. (H)

  • Akialoa ellisiana Oahu Akialoa. (H)

  • Akialoa lanaiensis Maui-nui Akialoa. (H)

  • Chlorodrepanis virens Hawaii Amakihi. (H)

  • Chlorodrepanis flava Oahu Amakihi. (H)

  • Chlorodrepanis stejnegeri Kauai Amakihi. (H)

  • Viridonia sagittirostris Greater Amakihi. (H)

  • Loxops wolstenholmei Oahu Akepa. (H)

  • Loxops ochraceus Maui Akepa. (H)

  • Loxops coccineus Hawaii Akepa. (H)

Delete the following names:

  • Pterodroma arminjoniana Herald Petrel. (A)

  • Buteo magnirostris Roadside Hawk.

  • Buteo albicaudatus White-tailed Hawk.

  • Leptotila cassini Gray-chested Dove.

  • Amazilia saucerrottei Steely-vented Hummingbird.

  • Micrasturinae

  • Caracarinae

  • Platycercinae

  • Psittacinae

  • Cranioleuca vulpina Rusty-backed Spinetail.

  • Xenopipo holochlora Green Manakin.

  • Spizella arborea American Tree Sparrow.

  • Hemignathus virens Hawaii Amakihi. (H)

  • Hemignathus flavus Oahu Amakihi. (H)

  • Hemignathus kauaiensis Kauai Amakihi. (H)

  • Hemignathus sagittirostris Greater Amakihi. (H)

  • Hemignathus obscurus Lesser Akialoa. (H)

  • Hemignathus ellisianus Greater Akialoa. (H)

  • Hemignathus lucidus Nukupuu. (H)

  • Hemignathus munroi Akiapolaau. (H)

  • Vestiaria coccinea Iiwi. (H)

  • Loxops coccineus Akepa. (H)

Change the sequence of species from Morphnarchus to Buteo to:

  • Morphnarchus princeps

  • Rupornis magnirostris

  • Parabuteo unicinctus

  • Geranoaetus albicaudatus

  • Pseudastur albicollis

  • Leucopternis semiplumbeus

  • Buteo plagiatus

  • Buteo nitidus

  • Buteo lineatus

  • Buteo ridgwayi

  • Buteo platypterus

  • Buteo solitarius

  • Buteo brachyurus

  • Buteo swainsoni

  • Buteo albonotatus

  • Buteo jamaicensis

  • Buteo lagopus

  • Buteo regalis

Move Herpetotheres cachinnans to follow subfamily Herpetotherinae.

Move Psittacula krameri to follow subfamily Psittaculinae, move Agapornis roseicollis to follow subfamily Agapornithinae, and move Melopsittacus undulatus to follow subfamily Loriinae.

Change the sequence of genera in the PIPRIDAE to:

  • Chiroxiphia

  • Corapipo

  • Cryptopipo

  • Lepidothrix

  • Manacus

  • Dixiphia

  • Ceratopipra

Transfer Coereba flaveola, the six species of Saltator, Volatinia jacarina, the nine species of Sporophila, Melopyrrha nigra, the three species of Tiaris, Loxipasser anoxanthus, the four species of Loxigilla, Euneornis campestris, Melanospiza richardsoni, Pinaroloxias inornata, Haplospiza rustica, Acanthidops bairdi, the two species of Diglossa, the two species of Sicalis, and Emberizoides herbicola, arranged according to the linear sequence below, to the family THRAUPIDAE.

Transfer Nesospingus speculiferus, the two species of Phaenicophilus, the two species of Calyptophilus, Rhodinocichla rosea, Mitrospingus cassinii, and the four species of Spindalis, in this sequence, to Genera INCERTAE SEDIS following Saltator striatipectus.

Change the sequence of genera in the THRAUPIDAE to:

  • Bangsia

  • Paroaria

  • Thraupis

  • Tangara

  • Conirostrum

  • Sicalis

  • Haplospiza

  • Acanthidops

  • Diglossa

  • Chlorophanes

  • Chrysothlypis

  • Heterospingus

  • Hemithraupis

  • Volatinia

  • Eucometis

  • Tachyphonus

  • Lanio

  • Ramphocelus

  • Tersina

  • Cyanerpes

  • Dacnis

  • Coereba

  • Tiaris

  • Euneornis

  • Loxigilla

  • Melopyrrha

  • Loxipasser

  • Melanospiza

  • Pinaroloxias

  • Sporophila

  • Emberizoides

  • Saltator

Change the sequence of species in Ramphocelus to:

  • Ramphocelus sanguinolentus

  • Ramphocelus flammigerus

  • Ramphocelus passerinii

  • Ramphocelus costaricensis

  • Ramphocelus dimidiatus

Change the sequence of species in Sporophila to:

  • Sporophila lineola

  • Sporophila funerea

  • Sporophila crassirostris

  • Sporophila nuttingi

  • Sporophila corvina

  • Sporophila schistacea

  • Sporophila torqueola

  • Sporophila nigricollis

  • Sporophila minuta

Change the sequence of genera from Telespiza to Melamprosops to:

  • Melamprosops

  • Oreomystis

  • Paroreomyza

  • Loxioides

  • Telespiza

  • Chloridops

  • Rhodacanthis

  • Ciridops

  • Palmeria

  • Himatione

  • Drepanis

  • Psittirostra

  • Dysmorodrepanis

  • Pseudonestor

  • Hemignathus

  • Akialoa

  • Magumma

  • Chlorodrepanis

  • Viridonia

  • Loxops

p. 12. After the account for Phoebastria nigripes, insert the following new species account:

Phoebastria irrorata (Salvin). Waved Albatross.

Diomedea irrorata Salvin, 1883, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 430. (Callao Bay, Peru.)

Habitat.—

Pelagic Waters; breeds on islands.

Distribution.—

Breeds on Hood Island (Galápagos Islands) and on Isla de la Plata off Ecuador.

Ranges at sea near the coasts of Ecuador and Peru.

Accidental in Costa Rica (Cabo Blanco, Puntarenas, 9 January 2014; photos; Obando-Calderón et al. 2014). Sight reports from Panama, west of Piñas Bay, Darién, 26 February 1941 (Ridgely 1976), and southwest of the Pearl Islands, 27 September 1964 (Ridgely and Gwynne 1989).

Notes.—

Also known as Galapagos Albatross.

p. 13. The citation for Pterodroma solandri, which was transferred from the Appendix to the main list in Chesser et al. (2013), is corrected following McAllan (2004) to:

  • Procellaria Solandri Gould, 1844, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 13:363. (Bass's Straits = Bass Strait.)

p. 13. Pterodroma heraldica is treated as a species separate from P. arminjoniana. In the species account for P. arminjoniana, change the English name to Trindade Petrel, and change the distributional statement and Notes to:

Distribution.—

Breeds on islands in the South Atlantic (Trindade, Martin Vas Rocks) and Indian Ocean (Round Island off Mauritius).

Ranges at sea generally in the South Atlantic near the breeding grounds and into the subtropical North Atlantic, regularly off North Carolina (Howell 2012).

Casual or accidental from New York (near Ithaca; Allen 1934) south to Virginia (including inland records), in Puerto Rico (Cayo Lobito, Culebra National Wildlife Refuge; Gochfeld et al. 1988), northeast of the Lesser Antilles (lat. 21°51′N, long. 43°35′W), and in England.

Notes.—

Formerly considered conspecific with P. heraldica and P. atrata Mathews, 1912 [Henderson Petrel], but the three are treated as separate species on the basis of assortative mating on islands where they breed in sympatry (Brooke and Rowe 1996; but see Brown et al. [2010] for hybridization in secondary contact on Round Island).

After the species account for P. arminjoniana, insert the following new account:

Pterodroma heraldica (Salvin). Herald Petrel.

Oestrelata heraldica Salvin, 1888, Ibis, p. 357. (Chesterfield Islands, western Pacific.)

Habitat.—

Pelagic Waters; nests on islands on bare rock under overhanging ledges or plants.

Distribution.—

Breeds on islands in the tropical South Pacific.

Ranges at sea in the South Pacific near the breeding grounds.

Accidental in the Hawaiian Islands (French Frigate Shoals, 14 March 1968; Amerson 1971:125), with additional sight reports near Clipperton Island and north to the Revillagigedo Islands (Howell and Webb 1995).

Notes.—

See Notes under Pterodroma arminjoniana.

p. 16. After the species account for Pterodroma feae, insert the following new account:

Pterodroma madeira Mathews. Zino's Petrel.

Pterodroma mollis madeira Mathews, 1934, Bull. Brit. Ornithol. Club 54:179. (Madeira.)

Habitat.—

Pelagic Waters; nests in burrows at highest elevations on Madeira.

Distribution.—

Breeds on Madeira, where critically endangered.

Ranges at sea in waters around Madeira, also recorded around the Azores. Geolocator data from Zino et al. (2011) showed birds ranging widely in the northeastern Atlantic during the breeding season; during the nonbreeding season they were mostly found off western Africa, along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge to St. Helena, and off Brazil.

Accidental off North Carolina (Hatteras, 16 September 1995; photos; Howell 2012, Flood and Fisher 2013).

Notes.—

See Notes under Pterodroma feae.

p. 21. Puffinus newelli is considered a species separate from P. auricularis. In the species account for P. auricularis, replace the distributional statement and existing Notes with the following:

Distribution.—

Breeds in the Revillagigedo Islands (Socorro and, at least formerly, Clarion and San Benedicto), off western Mexico.

Ranges at sea from Baja California south to Clipperton Island, west to long. ~121°W, and along the coast of Mexico south to Oaxaca; sight reports from California and from Oaxaca southward require confirmation.

Notes.—

Formerly considered conspecific with P. newelli, but treated as a separate species on the basis of differences in plumage (Howell et al. 1994), morphology and breeding chronology (Ainley et al. 1997), and feeding ecology (Spear et al. 1995) comparable to or greater than the differences among other valid species of small shearwater (and despite apparent similarity in mitochondrial DNA; Martínez-Gómez et al. 2015).

After the species account for Puffinus auricularis, insert the following new account:

Puffinus newelli Henshaw. Newell's Shearwater.

Puffinus newelli Henshaw, 1900, Auk 17:246. (Waihee Valley, Ulani = Maui.)

Habitat.—

Pelagic Waters; nests in burrows on oceanic islands.

Distribution.—

Breeds in the Hawaiian Islands on Kauai (possibly also on other main islands).

Ranges at sea primarily near the Hawaiian Islands.

Accidental in the Marianas, American Samoa, and California (Del Mar, San Diego County, 1 August 2007; specimen; Unitt et al. 2009).

Notes.—

The relationship of newelli to the extralimital P. myrtae Bourne, 1959 [Rapa Shearwater] is unresolved, and we tentatively consider them separate species pending additional data. See Notes under P. auricularis.

p. 41. After the species account for Mesophoyx intermedia, insert the following heading and new account:

Genus SYRIGMA Ridgway

  • Syrigma Ridgway, 1878, Bull. U.S. Geol. Geogr. Surv. Territories, 4, pp. 224, 247. Type, by original designation, Ardea sibilatrix Temminck.

Syrigma sibilatrix (Temminck). Whistling Heron.

  • Ardea sibilatrix Temminck, 1824, Planches Color., livr. 46, pl. 271. (Brazil and Paraguay.)

Habitat.—

Low Seasonally Wet Grasslands, Freshwater Marshes, Pastures/Agricultural Lands.

Distribution.—

Orinoco basin and llanos of Colombia and Venezuela and disjunctly from northern Bolivia east to southeastern Brazil and south to Buenos Aires Province, Argentina.

Accidental or casual in Panama (near Portobelo, Colón, 27 February 2010, photos; near Chepo, eastern Panamá province, 11 July 2013 and probably the same bird intermittently to 11 October 2014, photos, North American Birds 67:256–258; near Gorgona, western Panamá province, 15 July 2014, intermittently to at least 13 January 2015, photos; and near El Rincón, Herrera, 20 July 2014, photos).

p. 61. After the species account for Neochen jubata, insert the following heading and new account:

Genus ALOPOCHEN Stejneger

  • Alopochen Stejneger, 1885, in Kingsley, Standard Nat. Hist., 4, p. 141. Type, by subsequent designation (Oberholser, 1918, Journ. Washington Acad. Sci. 8:572), Anas aegyptiaca Linnaeus.

Alopochen aegyptiaca (Linnaeus). Egyptian Goose.

  • Anas aegyptiaca Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1:197. (Egypt.)

Habitat.—

In subtropical Africa, inland freshwater rivers and near lakes and pools; in Florida and Europe, where introduced, managed habitats with aquatic features (parks, golf courses, etc.).

Distribution.—

Resident in Africa south of the Sahara, and north along the Nile to about Aswan Dam, Egypt. Some northward movement during the wet season. Formerly, until early 18th century, found north to the Danube Valley in southern Hungary and Romania.

Casual north to Israel, Cyprus, Malta, and the Red Sea coast of Arabia.

Introduced in Martin County, Florida, in 1993–1994, and now established in southeast Florida (~1,200 birds as of 2012–2013; Pranty and Ponzo 2014). A small population is present in Orange County, California, and scattered individuals have been noted elsewhere in North America. Also introduced and established in parts of western Europe, notably Great Britain and The Netherlands.

pp. 96–103. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences (Raposo do Amaral et al. 2009) has shown that the generic limits and linear sequence of species currently placed in the genera Morphnarchus, Parabuteo, Pseudastur, Leucopternis, and Buteo do not accurately reflect their evolutionary relationships. Their findings result in the following changes:

After the account for Morphnarchus princeps, insert the following heading:

Genus RUPORNIS Kaup

  • Rupornis Kaup, 1844, Class. Säugethiere Vögel, p. 120. Type, by monotypy, Falco magnirostris Gmelin.

 Change Buteo magnirostris (Gmelin) to Rupornis magnirostris (Gmelin), place the account for this species under the heading and citation for Rupornis, and substitute the following for the Notes at the end of the species account:

Notes.—

Formerly placed in the genus Buteo, but genetic data (Raposo do Amaral et al. 2009) indicate that R. magnirostris is sister to all other species in the Buteo group other than Morphnarchus princeps, and not closely related to true Buteo.

After the account for Parabuteo unicinctus, insert the following heading:

Genus GERANOAETUS Kaup

  • Geranoaetus Kaup, 1844, Class. Säugethiere Vögel, p. 122. Type, by monotypy, Falco aguja Temminck = Spizaetus melanoleucus Vieillot.

 Change Buteo albicaudatus Vieillot to Geranoaetus albicaudatus (Vieillot), place the account for this species under the heading and citation for Geranoaetus, and insert the following Notes at the end of the species account:

Notes.—

Formerly placed in the genus Buteo, but genetic data (Raposo do Amaral et al. 2009) indicate that this species forms a clade with extralimital species Geranoaetus melanoleucus (Vieillot, 1819) [Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle] and Appendix species G. (formerly Buteo) polyosoma (Quoy and Gaimard, 1824) [Variable Hawk].

Rearrange the sequence of species from Morphnarchus princeps to Buteo lagopus to:

  • Morphnarchus princeps

  • Rupornis magnirostris

  • Parabuteo unicinctus

  • Geranoaetus albicaudatus

  • Pseudastur albicollis

  • Leucopternis semiplumbeus

  • Buteo plagiatus

  • Buteo nitidus

  • Buteo lineatus

  • Buteo ridgwayi

  • Buteo platypterus

  • Buteo solitarius

  • Buteo brachyurus

  • Buteo swainsoni

  • Buteo albonotatus

  • Buteo jamaicensis

  • Buteo lagopus

  • Buteo regalis

Add the following Notes under the heading Genus BUTEOGALLUS Lesson (p. 97): Linear sequence of genera from Buteogallus through Buteo follows Raposo et al. (2009).

pp. 107–111. Phylogenetic analysis of syringeal morphological characters and mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences (Griffiths 1999, Griffiths et al. 2004, Fuchs et al. 2012) indicate that our current subfamily classification of the Falconiformes does not accurately reflect their evolutionary relationships. Their findings result in the following changes:

Delete the headings Subfamily MICRASTURINAE: Forest-Falcons, Subfamily CARACARINAE: Caracaras, Tribe Herpetotherini: Laughing Falcons, and Tribe Falconini: True Falcons.

Delete the existing Notes under the heading Family FALCONIDAE and insert the following:

Notes.—

Subfamily arrangement follows Griffiths (1999), Griffiths et al. (2004), and Fuchs et al. (2012).

After the heading and Notes for Family FALCONIDAE: Caracaras and Falcons, insert the following new heading:

  • Subfamily HERPETOTHERINAE: Laughing Falcon and Forest-Falcons

Move the heading and citation for Genus HERPETOTHERES Vieillot and the species account for Herpetotheres cachinnans to follow this heading.

Change the heading Subfamily FALCONINAE: Falcons to Subfamily FALCONINAE: Caracaras and Falcons, and move this heading to follow the species account for Micrastur semitorquatus.

p. 181. Stercorarius antarcticus is considered a species separate from S. skua. Replace the distributional statement and Notes in the species account for S. skua with the following:

Distribution.—

Breeds in Iceland, the Faeroe, Shetland and Orkney islands, locally on the northern Scotland mainland, Svelbard, Norway, and Kola Peninsula, Russia.

Winters at sea in the eastern North Atlantic, from lat. 60°N south to the Tropic of Cancer, regularly on the Newfoundland Banks and off the coast from Nova Scotia to North Carolina, and rarely to the Canary Islands, the Mediterranean Sea, and off northeastern South America (Guyana, French Guiana, and Brazil).

Accidental in Belize (Ambergris Cay), Guyana, Novaya Zemlya, and continental Europe.

Notes.—

Formerly considered conspecific with S. antarcticus (including S. lonnbergi), but treated as a separate species on the basis of phenotypic differences commensurate with or greater than those found in reproductively isolated sympatric congeners in the Southern Hemisphere (Furness 1996).

p. 221. After the species account for Patagioenas nigrirostris, insert the following new account:

Patagioenas goodsoni (Hartert). Dusky Pigeon.

  • Columba goodsoni Hartert, 1902, Bull. Brit. Ornithol. Club 12:42. (San Javier, Pambilar, and Carondelet, n.w. Ecuador = Pambila, Ecuador.)

Habitat.—

Tropical Lowland Evergreen Forest, Montane Evergreen Forest (0–1,000 m).

Distribution.—

Resident in western Colombia and western Ecuador.

Accidental or casual in eastern Panama near the Colombian border (near Hito Palo de las Letras, Darién, 28 December 2012; photos and video; Campos-Cedeño and Vallely 2014). Additional sight reports from this area in upper Tuila Valley, Darién, 7 March 1981 (Ridgely and Gwynne 1989), and on trail to Cerro Pirre above Cana, Darién, 17 April 1992 (Angehr et al. 2006).

Notes.—

See comments under P. nigrirostris.

p. 229. The name Leptotila cassini is corrected to Leptotila cassinii, in accordance with the spelling of the name in the original description (Lawrence 1867), contra Ridgway (1916), Peters (1937), and Sibley and Monroe (1990).

pp. 232–245. Molecular, paleontological, and morphological evidence (summarized in Joseph et al. 2012) indicate that our current family and subfamily classification of the Psittaciformes does not accurately reflect their evolutionary relationships. Their findings result in the following changes:

Delete the existing Notes under the heading Order PSITTACIFORMES: Parrots, transfer the existing Notes for Family PSITTACIDAE: Lories, Parakeets, Macaws, and Parrots to Order PSITTACIFORMES: Parrots, and add the following to the end of these newly added Notes: Family and subfamily arrangement follows Joseph et al. (2012).

Change the heading Family PSITTACIDAE: Lories, Parakeets, Macaws, and Parrots to:

Family PSITTACIDAE: African and New World Parrots

Move the heading Subfamily ARINAE: New World Parakeets, Macaws, and Parrots and its included genera and species to follow this family heading.

Delete the headings Subfamily PLATYCERCINAE: Australian Parrots and Rosellas and Subfamily PSITTACINAE: Typical Parrots.

After the species account for Amazona imperialis, insert the following new headings:

  • Family PSITTACULIDAE: Lories, Lovebirds, and Indomalayan and Papua-Australian Parrots

  • Subfamily PSITTACULINAE: Indomalayan and Papua-Australian Parrots

Move the heading and citation for Genus PSITTACULA Cuvier and the species account for Psittacula krameri to follow this heading.

After the species account for Psittacula krameri, insert the following new heading:

  • Subfamily AGAPORNITHINAE: Lovebirds and Hanging-Parrots

Move the heading and citation for Genus AGAPORNIS Selby and the species account for Agapornis roseicollis to follow this heading.

After the species account for Agapornis roseicollis, insert the following new heading:

  • Subfamily LORIINAE: Lories and Allies

Move the heading and citation for Genus MELOPSITTACUS Selby and the species account for Melopsittacus undulatus to follow this heading.

p. 283. Phaethornis mexicanus is treated as a species separate from P. longirostris. In the species account for P. longirostris, change the distributional statement and Notes to:

Distribution.—

Resident [longirostris group] on the Gulf-Caribbean slope from Veracruz, Tabasco, northern Oaxaca, and northern Chiapas south through Central America to Nicaragua, on both slopes of Costa Rica and Panama, and in northern Colombia and northwestern Venezuela; and [baroni group] in South America west of the Andes in western Ecuador and northwestern Peru.

Notes.—

Groups: P. longirostris and P. baroni Hartert, 1897 [Hartert's Hermit]. Formerly considered conspecific with extralimital P. superciliosus (Linnaeus, 1766) [Long-tailed Hermit], but separated (Banks et al. 2002) largely on morphological grounds. See Notes under P. mexicanus.

Before the species account for P. longirostris, insert the following new account:

Phaethornis mexicanus Hartert. Mexican Hermit.

  • Phaëthornis mexicanus Hartert, 1897, Ibis, p. 425. (Dos Arroyos, near Chilpancingo, Guerrero.)

Habitat.—

Tropical Lowland Evergreen Forest, Montane Evergreen Forest (100–1,900 m; Tropical and Subtropical zones).

Distribution.—

Resident [griseoventer group] in western Mexico from west-central Nayarit (near Tepic and San Blas) south to Jalisco (Sierra de Autlán, Mineral San Sebastian) and Colima (Cerro Grande); and [mexicanus group] in Guerrero and western Oaxaca.

Notes.—

Groups: P. griseoventer Phillips, 1962 [Jalisco Hermit] and P. mexicanus. Formerly considered conspecific with P. longirostris, but treated as a separate species on the basis of differences in vocalizations, behavior, genetics, and morphology (Arbeláez-Cortés and Navarro-Sigüenza 2013, Howell 2013, McGuire et al. 2014).

p. 299. The name Amazilia saucerrottei is corrected to Amazilia saucerottei. The name in the original description (saucerrottei) was a misspelling of Saucerotte, the person for whom the species was named (Delattre and Bourcier 1846). This inadvertent error must be corrected under the rules of the Code of Zoological Nomenclature (International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1999, Article 32.5.1).

p. 307. Calliphlox lyrura is treated as a species separate from C. evelynae. In the species account for C. evelynae, change the habitat and distributional statements and Notes to:

Habitat.—

Pine Forest, Second-growth Scrub, Tropical Lowland Evergreen Forest Edge, and Arid Lowland Scrub.

Distribution.—

Resident throughout the Bahamas and Turks and Caicos, except Great and Little Inagua.

Casual in southern Florida (Lantana, Homestead, Miami area).

Notes.—

Sometimes placed in Philodice or Nesophlox (Ridgway 1910) or merged into Calothorax (Howell 2002). Formerly considered conspecific with C. lyrura, but treated as a separate species (as in Ridgway 1910) on the basis of differences in calls, songs, mechanical sounds, morphology, and genetics (Feo et al. 2015). English names for this species and for C. lyrura follow Ridgway (1910) as a temporary measure, pending a family-wide revision of English group names based on a complete phylogeny of the Trochilidae.

After the species account for C. evelynae, insert the following new account:

Calliphlox lyrura (Gould). Inagua Woodstar.

  • Doricha lyrura Gould, 1869, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 4:108–112. (Matthew Town, Great Inagua, Bahamas.)

Habitat.—

Second-growth Scrub, Riparian Thickets, and Arid Lowland Scrub.

Distribution.—

Resident on islands of Great and Little Inagua (Bahamas).

Notes.—

Also called Lyre-tailed Hummingbird (Cory 1880), Inaguan Hummingbird, or Inagua Lyretail (Feo et al. 2015). See Notes under C. evelynae.

p. 349. Cranioleuca dissita is treated as a species separate from C. vulpina. Remove the species account for C. vulpina and replace it with the following new account:

Cranioleuca dissita Wetmore. Coiba Spinetail.

  • Cranioleuca vulpina dissita Wetmore, 1957, Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 134:55. (Isla Coiba, Panama.)

Habitat.—

Tropical Deciduous Forest.

Distribution.—

Resident on Isla Coiba, Panama.

Notes.—

Formerly considered conspecific with C. vulpina (Pelzeln, 1856) [Rusty-backed Spinetail], but treated as separate on the basis of differences in vocalizations, genetics, and behavior (Ridgely and Gwynne 1989, Derryberry et al. 2011).

pp. 423–426. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences (Ohlson et al. 2013) has shown that the classification, generic limits, and linear sequence of genera in the family Pipridae do not accurately reflect their evolutionary relationships. Their findings result in the following changes:

Delete the existing Notes under the heading Family PIPRIDAE: Manakins and insert the following:

Notes.—

Linear sequence of genera and species follows Rêgo et al. (2007), Tello et al. (2009), McKay et al. (2010), and Ohlson et al. (2013).

After the heading Family PIPRIDAE: Manakins, insert the following new heading:

  • Subfamily PIPRINAE: Typical Manakins

After the species account for Chiroxiphia linearis, replace the heading Genus XENOPIPO Cabanis and its citation and Notes with the following:

  • Genus CRYPTOPIPO Ohlson et al.

Cryptopipo Ohlson, Fjeldså and Ericson, 2013, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 69:802. Type, by original designation, Chloropipo holochlora Sclater.

Change Xenopipo holochlora (Sclater) to Cryptopipo holochlora (Sclater), place the account for this species under the heading and citation for Cryptopipo, and replace the existing Notes with the following:

Notes.—

Formerly placed in the genus Xenopipo, but genetic data (Ohlson et al. 2013) indicate that C. holochlora is sister to the genus Lepidothrix and not closely related to true Xenopipo.

Rearrange the genera in the family Pipridae in the following new sequence:

  • Chiroxiphia

  • Corapipo

  • Cryptopipo

  • Lepidothrix

  • Manacus

  • Dixiphia

  • Ceratopipra

p. 473. After the species account for Campylorhynchus chiapensis, insert the following new account:

Campylorhynchus griseus (Swainson). Bicolored Wren.

  • Furnarius griseus Swainson, 1837, Anim. Menag., p. 325. (savannas of Guiana.)

Habitat.—

Lowland and Montane Arid Scrub, Tropical Deciduous Forest, Gallery Forest, and Tropical Lowland Forest Edge (0–2,100 m; Tropical and Subtropical zones).

Distribution.—

Northern Colombia and northern Venezuela locally south and east to extreme northern Brazil (Roraima) and southwestern Guyana.

Casual breeder in eastern Panama (at least two individuals, including nesting birds, at Paya, Darién, 23–25 December 2012; photos; North American Birds 67:349–356; Campos-Cedeño and Vallely 2014). Vocal report from eastern Panama (Boca de Cupe, Darién, 28 December 2012; Campos-Cedeño and Vallely 2014).

Notes.—

See Notes under C. chiapensis.

p. 498. After the species account for Ficedula albicilla, insert the following heading and new account:

Genus PHOENICURUS Forster

  • Phoenicurus T. Forster, 1817. Synop. Cat. Br. Birds, p. 16. Type by monotypy and tautonymy = Sylvia phoenicurus Latham et auct. = Motacilla phoenicurus Linnaeus, 1758.

Phoenicurus phoenicurus (Linnaeus). Common Redstart.

  • Motacilla Phoenicurus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 1, p. 187 (“in Europa” = Sweden).

Habitat.—

Open woodland, parkland. Also scrublands in migration and winter.

Distribution.—

Breeds from the United Kingdom, western Europe, and northern Morocco, east to Iran and across Asia to northwest China and eastern Siberia (east to Lake Baikal).

Winters from the southwest Arabian Peninsula and across central Africa south of the Sahara; in east Africa south to the north shore of Lake Victoria.

Rare migrant to Iceland. Casual to Madeira, offshore Japan and the Kuril Islands.

Accidental in Alaska (an immature male at St. Paul Island, Pribilofs, 8–9 October 2013; photos; North American Birds 68:167, 2014; Pranty et al. 2014).

pp. 569–599. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences (Barker et al. 2013, 2015; Burns et al. 2014) has shown that the composition and linear sequence of genera and species in the family Thraupidae do not accurately reflect their evolutionary relationships. Their findings result in the following changes:

Under the heading Family THRAUPIDAE: Tanagers, insert the following:

Notes.—

Linear sequence of genera follows Burns et al. (2014).

Remove the genus Coereba, its citation, and the species account for Coereba flaveola from genus incertae sedis, and position them in the Thraupidae in the linear sequence as indicated below. Delete the heading Genus INCERTAE SEDIS. After the citation for the genus, insert the following:

Notes.—

Formerly placed in the monotypic family Coerebidae, but analysis of sequences of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (Barker et al. 2013, 2015; Burns et al. 2014) indicates that its correct placement is in the Thraupidae.

Remove the genus Saltator, its citation, and its included species from genus incertae sedis, and place them in the Thraupidae in the linear sequence as indicated below. Delete the heading Genus INCERTAE SEDIS. Replace the first two sentences of the Notes for Saltator with the following: Formerly placed in the Cardinalidae, but analysis of sequences of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (Barker et al. 2013, 2015; Burns et al. 2014) indicates that its correct placement is in the Thraupidae.

Delete the Notes under the heading Family EMBERIZIDAE: Emberizids.

Remove the genus headings, citations, and included species for Volatinia, Sporophila, Melopyrrha, Tiaris, Loxipasser, Loxigilla, Euneornis, Melanospiza, Pinaroloxias, Haplospiza, Acanthidops, Diglossa, Sicalis, and Emberizoides from the Emberizidae and place them in the Thraupidae in the linear sequence as indicated below.

Under the headings Genus VOLATINIA Reichenbach, Genus MELOPYRRHA Bonaparte, Genus TIARIS Swainson, Genus LOXIPASSER Bryant, Genus LOXIGILLA Lesson, Genus MELANOSPIZA Ridgway, Genus PINAROLOXIAS Sharpe, Genus SICALIS Boie, and Genus EMBERIZOIDES Temminck, insert the following:

Notes.—

Formerly placed in the Emberizidae, but analysis of sequences of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (Barker et al. 2013, 2015; Burns et al. 2014) indicates that its correct placement is in the Thraupidae.

Under the headings Genus EUNEORNIS Fitzinger, Genus HAPLOSPIZA Cabanis, and Genus ACANTHIDOPS Ridgway, replace the existing Notes with the following: Formerly placed in the Emberizidae, but analysis of sequences of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (Barker et al. 2013, 2015; Burns et al. 2014) indicates that its correct placement is in the Thraupidae.

Under the headings Genus SPOROPHILA Cabanis and Genus DIGLOSSA Wagler, add the following to the beginning of the Notes: Formerly placed in the Emberizidae, but analysis of sequences of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (Barker et al. 2013, 2015; Burns et al. 2014) indicates that its correct placement is in the Thraupidae.

Following the species account for Saltator striatipectus, insert the following new heading and Notes:

  • Genera INCERTAE SEDIS

Notes.—

Nesospingus, Phaenicophilus, Calyptophilus, Rhodinocichla, Mitrospingus, and Spindalis, formerly placed in the Thraupidae, are part of the nine-primaried oscine radiation but do not belong to the Thraupidae or to any other traditionally recognized family (Barker et al. 2013, 2015). These taxa are placed as genera incertae sedis as a temporary measure, pending consideration of the classification of Barker et al. (2013), who proposed that each genus be accorded family status (Nesospingidae, Phaenicophilidae, etc.).

Move the genus headings and species accounts for Nesospingus speculiferus, the two species of Phaenicophilus, the two species of Calyptophilus, Rhodinocichla rosea, Mitrospingus cassinii, and the four species of Spindalis, in this linear sequence, from Thraupidae and insert them under this new heading.

Under the headings Genus NESOSPINGUS Sclater, Genus PHAENICOPHILUS Strickland, Genus CALYPTOPHILUS Cory, and Genus MITROSPINGUS Ridgway insert:

Notes.—

Formerly placed in the Thraupidae; see Notes under Genera incertae sedis above.

Replace the existing Notes under the headings Genus RHODINOCICHLA Hartlaub and Genus SPINDALIS Jardine and Selby with: Formerly placed in the Thraupidae; see Notes under Genera incertae sedis above.

Rearrange the sequence of genera in the Thraupidae to:

  • Bangsia

  • Paroaria

  • Thraupis

  • Tangara

  • Conirostrum

  • Sicalis

  • Haplospiza

  • Acanthidops

  • Diglossa

  • Chlorophanes

  • Chrysothlypis

  • Heterospingus

  • Hemithraupis

  • Volatinia

  • Eucometis

  • Tachyphonus

  • Lanio

  • Ramphocelus

  • Tersina

  • Cyanerpes

  • Dacnis

  • Coereba

  • Tiaris

  • Euneornis

  • Loxigilla

  • Melopyrrha

  • Loxipasser

  • Melanospiza

  • Pinaroloxias

  • Sporophila

  • Emberizoides

  • Saltator

Under the heading Genus RAMPHOCELUS Desmarest, insert the following:

Notes.—

Linear sequence of species follows Burns et al. (2014).

Rearrange the sequence of species in Ramphocelus to:

  • Ramphocelus sanguinolentus

  • Ramphocelus flammigerus

  • Ramphocelus passerinii

  • Ramphocelus costaricensis

  • Ramphocelus dimidiatus

Rearrange the sequence of species in Sporophila to:

  • Sporophila lineola

  • Sporophila funerea

  • Sporophila crassirostris

  • Sporophila nuttingi

  • Sporophila corvina

  • Sporophila schistacea

  • Sporophila torqueola

  • Sporophila nigricollis

  • Sporophila minuta

p. 610. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences (Klicka et al. 2014) has shown that the genus Spizella is polyphyletic. Their findings result in the following changes:

Move the heading Genus SPIZELLA Bonaparte and its citation to precede the species account for Spizella passerina.

After the species account for Torreornis inexpectata, insert the following heading and citation:

Genus SPIZELLOIDES Klicka and Slager

  • Spizelloides Klicka and Slager, 2014, Zootaxa 3821:399. Type, by monotypy, Fringilla arborea Wilson.

Change Spizella arborea (Wilson) to Spizelloides arborea (Wilson).

Insert the following at the beginning of the Notes for Spizelloides arborea: Formerly placed in the genus Spizella, but analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences (Klicka et al. 2014) indicates that S. arborea is not closely related to true Spizella.

pp. 671–679. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences (Lerner et al. 2011) and a synthesis of molecular, morphological, and behavioral data (Pratt 2014) have shown that the generic limits and linear sequence of genera in the Hawaiian honeycreepers do not accurately reflect their evolutionary relationships. Their findings result in the following changes:

Change Vestiaria coccinea (Forster) to Drepanis coccinea (Forster), delete the genus heading and Notes for Vestiaria, move the citation for Vestiaria into the synonymy of Drepanis, insert the species account for Drepanis coccinea to follow the heading and citation for Drepanis, and insert the following Notes at the end of the species account for Drepanis coccinea:

Notes.—

Formerly placed in the genus Vestiaria; see comments under Drepanis.

Replace the existing Notes under the heading Genus DREPANIS Temminck with the following:

Notes.—

Vestiaria and Drepanis, previously considered separate genera, are merged on the basis of morphological similarity (Pratt 1979, Olson 2012, Knowlton et al. 2014).

Delete the Notes under Genus HEMIGNATHUS Lichtenstein and move the species accounts for Hemignathus lucidus and Hemignathus munroi to follow this heading and its citations.

Change Hemignathus munroi to Hemignathus wilsoni and substitute the following for the existing Notes:

Notes.—

Formerly known as Hemignathus munroi Pratt, 1979, due to priority of the name Heterorhynchus wilsoni Rothschild, 1893, when both taxa were included in Hemignathus.

After the species account for Hemignathus wilsoni, insert the following heading:

  • Genus AKIALOA Olson and James

Remove the citation for this genus from the synonymy of Hemignathus, place it to follow this new heading, and insert the following:

Notes.—

Formerly considered part of Hemignathus (AOU 1983, 1998), but genetic and morphological data (Tarr and Fleischer 1993, 1995; Fleischer et al. 1998; James 2004; Reding et al. 2008; Lerner et al. 2011) indicate that the expanded version of Hemignathus (Pratt 1979) is not a monophyletic group.

Change Hemignathus obscurus and Hemignathus ellisianus to Akialoa obscura and Akialoa ellisiana, respectively, and place the accounts for these species under the heading and Notes for Akialoa.

Replace the existing distributional statement and Notes for Akialoa obscura with the following:

Distribution.—

EXTINCT. Formerly resident in the mountains of Hawaii (last collected in 1903, last sight report 1940) in the Hawaiian Islands.

Notes.—

A. obscura and A. ellisiana sensu lato are sometimes treated as conspecific (e.g., Greenway in Paynter 1968, Olson and James 1982), in which case A. obscura [Akialoa] is the appropriate name. See comments under A. stejnegeri.

After the species account for Akialoa ellisiana, insert the following heading:

Genus CHLORODREPANIS Wilson and Evans

  • Chlorodrepanis Wilson and Evans (ex Perkins MS), 1899, Aves Hawaiienses, p. xxi. Type, by subsequent designation (Richmond, 1902, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 673), Himatione stejnegeri Wilson.

Change Hemignathus virens, Hemignathus flavus, and Hemignathus kauaiensis to Chlorodrepanis virens, Chlorodrepanis flava, and Chlorodrepanis stejnegeri, respectively, and move the accounts for these species to follow the citation for Chlorodrepanis.

Replace the existing Notes for Chlorodrepanis virens with the following:

Notes.—

This species and the following two species, C. flava and C. stejnegeri, were formerly placed in the genus Hemignathus. They have also sometimes been placed, along with Viridonia sagittirostris, in Viridonia (e.g., Greenway in Paynter 1968) or in Loxops (Amadon 1947, 1950; James and Olson 1991). The following two species have been considered conspecific with virens (e.g., Greenway in Paynter 1968), but are here considered separate species based on studies by Johnson et al. (1989) and Tarr and Fleischer (1993). Johnson et al. (1989) showed that the group on Molokai, Maui, and Lanai (C. wilsoni Rothschild, 1893 [Maui Amakihi]) is genetically closest to virens.

Replace the existing Notes for Chlorodrepanis flava with the following:

Notes.—

See Notes under Chlorodrepanis virens.

Replace the existing Notes for Chlorodrepanis stejnegeri with the following:

Notes.—

Formerly placed in the genus Hemignathus. When included in Hemignathus, the species name stejnegeri is preoccupied by Hemignathus stejnegeri Wilson, 1889 [Kauai Akialoa], and kauaiensis Pratt, 1989 is used. See Conant et al. (1998) for reasons for treating C. stejnegeri as a species.

After the species account for Chlorodrepanis stejnegeri, insert the following heading:

  • Genus VIRIDONIA Rothschild

Remove the citation for this genus from the synonymy of Hemignathus, place it to follow this new heading, change Hemignathus sagittirostris (Rothschild) to Viridonia sagittirostris Rothschild, move the account for this species to follow the citation, and change the Notes for this species to the following:

Notes.—

Formerly placed in the genus Hemignathus, but genetic and morphological data (Tarr and Fleischer 1993, 1995; Fleischer et al. 1998; James 2004; Reding et al. 2008; Lerner et al. 2011) indicate that the expanded version of Hemignathus (Pratt 1979) is not a monophyletic group.

Rearrange the sequence of genera from Telespiza to Melamprosops to:

  • Melamprosops

  • Oreomystis

  • Paroreomyza

  • Loxioides

  • Telespiza

  • Chloridops

  • Rhodacanthis

  • Ciridops

  • Palmeria

  • Himatione

  • Drepanis

  • Psittirostra

  • Dysmorodrepanis

  • Pseudonestor

  • Hemignathus

  • Akialoa

  • Magumma

  • Chlorodrepanis

  • Viridonia

  • Loxops

Delete the existing Notes under Genus LOXIOIDES Oustalet, Genus TELESPIZA Wilson, Genus CHLORIDOPS Wilson, Genus RHODACANTHIS Rothschild, Genus PSITTIROSTRA Temminck, and Genus DYSMORODREPANIS Perkins, and replace the existing Notes under Genus MELAMPROSOPS Casey and Jacobi with the following:

Notes.Melamprosops and the following 19 genera constitute the Hawaiian honeycreepers, formerly (AOU 1983, 1998) considered to constitute the subfamily Drepanidinae. Linear sequence of these genera follows Lerner et al. (2011) and Pratt (2014).

p. 675. Akialoa stejnegeri and A. lanaiensis are treated as species separate from A. ellisiana. In the species account for A. ellisiana, add a dagger (†) before the scientific name, change the English name to Oahu Akialoa, and change the distributional statement and Notes to:

Distribution.—

EXTINCT. Formerly resident in the mountains of Oahu (last collected in 1837, last sight report 1939).

Notes.—

See Notes under A. stejnegeri.

Before the species account for A. ellisiana, insert the following new account:

Akialoa stejnegeri (Wilson). Kauai Akialoa.

Hemignathus Stejnegeri Wilson, 1889, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 6, 4, p. 400. (Kauai.)

Habitat.—

Humid montane forest.

Distribution.—

Probably extinct. Formerly resident in the mountains of Kauai (Alakai plateau; last collected in 1960, last sight report 1965).

Notes.—

Formerly (AOU 1998) considered conspecific with A. ellisiana and A. lanaiensis (and previously also with obscura; AOU 1983), but these are treated as separate species on the basis of sympatry between some taxa in Akialoa and a lack of knowledge of relationships among these taxa (Olson and James 1995, Pratt 2014).

After the species account for A. ellisiana, insert the following new account:

Akialoa lanaiensis (Rothschild). Maui-nui Akialoa.

  • Hemignathus lanaiensis Rothschild, 1893, Bull. Brit. Ornithol. Club 1:24. (Lanai.)

Habitat.—

Humid montane forest.

Distribution.—

EXTINCT. Formerly resident in the mountains of Lanai (last collected in 1892, last sight report 1894).

Notes.—

See Notes under A. stejnegeri.

p. 675. Hemignathus hanapepe and Hemignathus affinis are treated as species separate from H. lucidus. In the species account for H. lucidus, add a dagger (†) before the scientific name, change the English name to Oahu Nukupuu, and change the distributional statement and Notes to:

Distribution.—

EXTINCT. Formerly resident in the mountains of Oahu (last collected in 1837, possible sight reports until 1860).

Notes.—

See Notes under H. hanapepe.

Before the species account for H. lucidus, insert the following new account:

  • Hemignathus hanapepe Wilson. Kauai Nukupuu.

Hemignathus hanapepe Wilson, 1889, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 6, 4, p. 401. (Kauai.)

Habitat.—

Humid montane forest, especially ohia and koa.

Distribution.—

Probably extinct. Formerly resident in the mountains of Kauai (last collected in 1899, sight reports until 1990s in the Alakai plateau region).

Notes.—

Formerly considered conspecific with H. lucidus and H. affinis, but treated as separate species on the basis of plumage differences commensurate with those observed among several other species groups of Hawaiian honeycreepers (Pratt et al. 2001, Pratt and Pratt 2001).

After the species account for H. lucidus, insert the following new account:

Hemignathus affinis Rothschild. Maui Nukupuu.

  • Hemignathus affinis Rothschild, 1893, Ibis, p. 112. (Maui.)

Habitat.—

Humid montane forest, especially ohia and koa.

Distribution.—

Possibly extinct, or resident locally in precarious numbers in the mountains of eastern Maui (windward slopes of Haleakala; last collected in 1896, last sight report 1996).

Notes.—

See Notes under H. hanapepe.

p. 677. Loxops wolstenholmei and Loxops ochraceus are treated as species separate from L. coccineus. In the species account for L. coccineus, change the English name to Hawaii Akepa, and change the habitat and distributional statements and Notes to:

Habitat.—

Humid montane forest, primarily ohia-koa and ohia.

Distribution.—

Resident in the mountains of Hawaii (rare and local).

Notes.—

See Notes under L. wolstenholmei.

Before the species account for L. coccineus, insert the following two new accounts, in this sequence:

Loxops wolstenholmei Rothschild. Oahu Akepa.

  • Loxops wolstenholmei Rothschild, 1893, Ibis, p. 570. (Oahu.)

Habitat.—

Humid montane forest, primarily ohia-koa and ohia.

Distribution.—

Probably extinct. Formerly resident in the mountains of Oahu (last collected in 1893, last sight report 1976).

Notes.—

Formerly considered conspecific with Loxops coccineus and Loxops ochraceus, but treated as separate species on the basis of plumage and behavioral differences greater than those among the three species of amakihi (Pratt 2010, 2014).

Loxops ochraceus Rothschild. Maui Akepa.

  • Loxops ochracea Rothschild, 1893, Ibis, p. 112. (Maui.)

Habitat.—

Humid montane forest, primarily ohia-koa and ohia.

Distribution.—

Probably extinct. Formerly resident in the mountains of eastern Maui (last collected ca. 1900, last sight report 1980).

Notes.—

See Notes under L. wolstenholmei.

p. 678. Himatione fraithii is treated as a species separate from H. sanguinea. In the species account for H. sanguinea, change the habitat and distributional statements and Notes to:

Habitat.—

Humid montane forests, primarily ohia–koa, but occasionally in mixed native–exotic forest.

Distribution.—

Resident in the mountains in the Hawaiian Islands (all main islands from Kauai eastward).

Accidental on Niihau.

Notes.—

See Notes under H. fraithii.

Before the species account for H. sanguinea, insert the following new account:

Himatione fraithii Rothschild. Laysan Honeycreeper.

  • Himatione fraithii Rothschild, 1892, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 6, 10, p. 109. (Laysan.)

Habitat.—

Brushy areas and bunchgrass.

Distribution.—

EXTINCT. Formerly resident on Laysan Island (extinct since 1923).

Notes.—

Formerly considered conspecific with H. sanguinea, but treated as a separate species on the basis of differences in song and song phenology, feeding behavior, nest placement and structure, habitat, and morphology (Pratt and Pratt 2001, Pratt 2005). Sometimes known by the species name freethi; however, this is an unjustified emendation of the original spelling fraithii (Pyle 2011).

p. 685. Delete the account for Phoebastria irrorata from the Appendix.

p. 691. In the Appendix, change Buteo polyosoma to Geranoaetus polyosoma and change the English name of this species from Red-backed Hawk to Variable Hawk. In the account for this species, change B. swainsoni to Buteo swainsoni and change the last sentence to the following: The origin of the bird remains highly questionable (Allen 1988).

p. 691. In the Appendix, following the species account for Porphyrio porphyrio, insert the following new account:

Anthropoides virgo (Linnaeus). Demoiselle Crane.

  • Ardea Virgo, Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 141. (“In Oriente” = India.)

An individual was photographed wintering with Sandhill Cranes near Lodi and Staten Island, San Joaquin County, California, from 30 September 2001 to 18 February 2002; probably the same individual was photographed later near Smithers, British Columbia, on 2 May 2002, and again probably the same bird at Gustavus, southeast Alaska, 13–14 May 2002 (Hamilton et al. 2007, Howell et al. 2014). The species was placed on the Supplemental List, indicating uncertain origin, by the California Bird Records Committee (Cole and McCaskie 2004). It is not rare in captivity in North America, and previous escapes are known. On the other hand, the species is highly migratory and has occurred as a stray throughout western Europe, north to the Orkney Islands and Scandinavia, and in northern Russia, far from its normal central and southern Asian and African range.

p. 691. In the Appendix, following the species account for Anthropoides virgo, insert the following new account:

Grus monacha Temminck. Hooded Crane.

  • Grus monacha Temminck, 1835, Pl. col., livr. 94, pl. 555. (Hokkaido and Korea.)

Sight reports (at least some documented with photographs) of this eastern Asian species from Idaho (April 2010), Nebraska (April 2011), Tennessee (December 2011–January 2012), and Indiana (February 2012), perhaps all of the same bird, were detailed by Pranty et al. (2014). Although accepted by three states' rare bird committees (not yet reviewed by the Idaho committee), the origin of these records was questioned by the American Birding Association's Checklist Committee (Pranty et al. 2014). The issue of origin (wild versus escape) is best considered unresolved at this time.

p. 693. Delete the account for Patagioenas goodsoni from the Appendix.

pp. 705 ff. Make the following changes to the list of French names of North American birds:

Insert the following names in the proper position as indicated by the text of this supplement:

  • Alopochen aegyptiaca Ouette d'Égypte

  • Phoebastria irrorata Albatros des Galapagos

  • Pterodroma madeira Pétrel de Madère

  • Pterodroma heraldica Pétrel du Herald

  • Pterodroma arminjoniana Pétrel de Trindade

  • Puffinus newelli Puffin de Newell

  • Syrigma sibilatrix Héron flûte-du-soleil

  • Charadrius collaris Pluvier de d'Azara

  • Rupornis magnirostris Buse à gros bec

  • Geranoaetus albicaudatus Buse à queue blanche

  • Patagioenas goodsoni Pigeon de Goodson

  • Leptotila cassinii Colombe de Cassin

  • Ninox japonica Ninoxe boréale

  • Phaethornis mexicanus Ermite de Hartert

  • Calliphlox lyrura Colibri d'Inagua

  • Doricha eliza Colibri d'Eliza

  • Mellisuga helenae Colibri d'Elena

  • Amazilia saucerottei Ariane de Sophie

  • PSITTACULIDAE

  • Cranioleuca dissita Synallaxe de Coiba

  • Cryptopipo holochlora Manakin vert

  • Campylorhynchus griseus Troglodyte bicolore

  • Phoenicurus phoenicurus Rougequeue à front blanc

  • Chlorophanes spiza Tangara émeraude

  • Spizelloides arborea Bruant hudsonien

  • Oreomystis bairdi Akikiki de Kauai

  • Paroreomyza maculata Alauhaio d'Oahu

  • Paroreomyza flammea Alauhaio de Molokai

  • Paroreomyza montana Alauhaio de Maui

  • Himatione fraithii Picchion de Laysan

  • Drepanis coccinea Iiwi rouge

  • Pseudonestor xanthophrys Pseudonestor de Maui

  • Hemignathus hanapepe Nukupuu de Kauai

  • Hemignathus lucidus Nukupuu d'Oahu

  • Hemignathus affinis Nukupuu de Maui

  • Hemignathus wilsoni Akiapolaau d'Hawaï

  • Akialoa obscura Akialoa d'Hawaï

  • Akialoa stejnegeri Akialoa de Kauai

  • Akialoa ellisiana Akialoa d'Oahu

  • Akialoa lanaiensis Akialoa de Lanai

  • Chlorodrepanis virens Amakihi familier

  • Chlorodrepanis flava Amakihi d'Oahu

  • Chlorodrepanis stejnegeri Amakihi de Stejneger

  • Viridonia sagittirostris Grand Amakihi

  • Loxops wolstenholmei Loxopse d'Oahu

  • Loxops ochraceus Loxopse de Maui

  • Loxops coccineus Loxopse d'Hawaï

in APPENDIX (Part 1)

  • Anthropoides virgo Grue demoiselle

  • Grus monacha Grue moine

  • Geranoaetus polyosoma Buse tricolore

Delete the following names:

  • Pterodroma arminjoniana Pétrel de la Trinité du Sud

  • Charadrius collaris Pluvier d'Azara

  • Buteo magnirostris Buse à gros bec

  • Buteo albicaudatus Buse à queue blanche

  • Leptotila cassini Colombe de Cassin

  • Ninox japonica Ninoxe du Japon

  • Doricha eliza Colibri élise

  • Mellisuga helenae Colibri d'Helen

  • Amazilia saucerrottei Ariane de Sophie

  • Cranioleuca vulpina Synallaxe renard

  • Xenopipo holochlora Manakin vert

  • Chlorophanes spiza Guit-guit émeraude

  • Spizella arborea Bruant hudsonien

  • Pseudonestor xanthophrys Psittirostre de Maui

  • Hemignathus virens Amakihi familier

  • Hemignathus flavus Amakihi d'Oahu

  • Hemignathus kauaiensis Amakihi de Kauai

  • Hemignathus sagittirostris Grand Amakihi

  • Hemignathus obscurus Hémignathe akialoa

  • Hemignathus ellisianus Hémignathe à long bec

  • Hemignathus lucidus Hémignathe nukupuu

  • Hemignathus munroi Hémignathe akiapolaau

  • Oreomystis bairdi Grimpeur de Kauai

  • Paroreomyza maculata Grimpeur d'Oahu

  • Paroreomyza flammea Grimpeur de Molokai

  • Paroreomyza montana Grimpeur de Maui

  • Loxops coccineus Loxopse des Hawaï

  • Vestiaria coccinea Iiwi rouge

in APPENDIX (Part 1)

  • Phoebastria irrorata Albatros des Galapagos

  • Buteo polyosoma Buse tricolore

  • Patagioenas goodsoni Pigeon de Goodson

Change the sequence of species from Morphnarchus to Buteo as indicated by the text of this supplement.

Move Herpetotheres cachinnans, Psittacula krameri, Agapornis roseicollis, and Melopsittacus undulatus as indicated by the text of this supplement.

Transfer Coereba, Saltator, Volatinia, Sporophila, Melopyrrha, Tiaris, Loxipasser, Loxigilla, Euneornis, Melanospiza, Pinaroloxias, Haplospiza, Acanthidops, Diglossa, Sicalis, Emberizoides, and their included species to the family THRAUPIDAE, and arrange as indicated by the text of this supplement.

Transfer Nesospingus, Phaenicophilus, Calyptophilus, Rhodinocichla, Mitrospingus, Spindalis, and their included species, in this sequence, to [INCERTAE SEDIS] following Saltator striatipectus.

Change the sequence of genera in the PIPRIDAE and THRAUPIDAE as indicated by the text of this supplement.

Change the sequence of species in Ramphocelus and Sporophila as indicated by the text of this supplement.

Change the sequence of genera from Telespiza to Melamprosops as indicated by the text of this supplement.

Proposals considered but not accepted by the committee included separation of Northern Harrier Circus hudsonius from Hen Harrier C. cyaneus, separation of Toxostoma arenicola from LeConte's Thrasher T. lecontei, separation of Passerina pallidior from Painted Bunting P. ciris, separation of Northern Cardinal Cardinalis cardinalis into six species, transfer of Loxops mana to Manucerthia, change of the English name of American Pipit Anthus rubescens to Buff-bellied Pipit, and the universal adoption of American spellings of words in bird names for which British and American spellings differ.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Normand David serves as the committee's advisor for classical languages in relation to scientific names, and Michel Gosselin is the authority for French names. We thank G. R. Angehr, G. Armistead, P. C. Banko, G. Bieber, N. Brinkley, M. Churchill, C. J. Clark, R. E. David, J. Ellis, T. J. Feo, L. A. Freed, D. D. Gibson, C. S. Griffiths, P. Harrison, H. F. James, A. Jaramillo, P. Kovalik, T. Leukering, N. A. Mason, J. M. Musser, G. Obando-Calderón, S. L. Olson, B. Patteson, H. D. Pratt, T. K. Pratt, P. Pyle, M. P. Retter, T. S. Schulenberg, D. L. Slager, R. C. Tweit, A. Wilson, and R. Wright for assistance, suggestions, and comments.

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