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In Yunnan Province China, ethnic peoples use five species of lichens as foods (Lobaria isidiophora, L. kurokawae, L. yoshimurae, Ramalina conduplicans, and R. sinensis) and five others as health-promoting teas (Lethariella cashmeriana, L. sernanderi, L. sinensis, Thamnolia vermicularis, and T. subuliformis). Local traditions concerning the use of these lichens are described, and the natural-product chemical constituents of each species are given.
The neotropical liverwort, Plagiochila rutilans Lindenb., is conspecific with P. remotifolia Hampe & Gottsche, P. farlowii Steph., P. harrisana Steph, and P. organensis Herzog. Plagiochila standleyi Carl is reduced to a variety of P. rutilans. Plagiochila gymnocalycina (Lehm. & Lindenb.) Mont. and P. portoricensis Hampe & Gottsche (= P. simplex (Sw.) Lindenb.) are excluded from the synonymy of P. rutilans. Plagiochila rutilans var. liebmanniana Gottsche is a synonym of P. crispabilis Lindenb.; P. rutilans var. laxa Lindenb. and var. angustifolia Herzog are conspecific with P. gymnocalycina. Sporophytes of P. rutilans are described for the first time. Fresh material of P. rutilans exhibits a distinct odor of peppermint caused by the presence of several menthane monoterpenoids, principally pulegone. NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) fingerprints and GC-MS data indicate that the lipophilic secondary metabolite profiles are distinct for the two varieties accepted in this study.
A description is given of the liverwort Scapania hoffeinsiana Grolle, sp. nov. with perianth and capsule from Bitterfeld amber (probably Eocene), the first fossil record of the Scapaniaceae from the Tertiary since 1886.
The moss Didymodon tectorum (C. Müll.) Saito of Asia is newly reported for North America based on specimens previously reported as Didymodon reedii Robins. (a new synonym) and Didymodon brachyphyllus (Sull.) Zander, which remains a good species. A key to species of the Didymodon vinealis complex in North America is presented. Didymodon tectorum and D. brachyphyllus are described and illustrated and their North American distribution is mapped. The problem of the first valid publication of Barbula brachyphylla is briefly discussed. Barbula ferrinervis C. Müll., hom. illeg. (= B. feruginervis Broth.) is reduced to synonymy with Barbula indica (Hook.) Spreng. var. indica.
A taxonomic study of corticolous species of Lecanora in the Sonoran Desert region containing usnic acids and not belonging to Lecanora s. str. is presented. Descriptions, notes on the ecology and distribution and a key to the 17 species recognized within the area are included. Lecanora coniferarum Printzen, L. latens Printzen, L. perconfusa Printzen, and L. substrobilina Printzen are described as new to science. The following new combinations are proposed: Lecanora densa (Śliwa & Wetmore) Printzen, L. laxa (Śliwa & Wetmore) Printzen, and L. americana (B. de Lesd.) Printzen.
Colonies of Bazzania trilobata (L.) S. Gray, a common and abundant species on the floor of closed canopy mixed and coniferous forests in New Brunswick, were observed to be pale and dry within a 2-yr-old clear-cut area. This multi-part study used a combination of approaches to assess the species' tolerance of various drying regimes. 1) To determine viability of field-dried shoots, bundles of shoots from the clear-cut and from an adjacent closed canopy forest (controls) were compared in terms of color and net photosynthetic rate (using Infra Red Gas Analysis, IRGA) before and after two months of laboratory “recovery” conditions (light, temperature, and humidity similar to those documented in closed canopy forest). Shoot elongation during recovery was also quantified. Field-dried shoots were viable: following recovery period, they had increased in length, shifted in hue, and displayed positive net photosynthesis, however none of these measures of metabolic activity equaled those of the controls. 2) The moisture content at saturation, determined for reference, was 1296.4% by weight. 3) The drying effect of the IRGA process was evaluated by subjecting moist pre-weighed bundles of shoots to three successive sequences of IRGA, re-weighing, and 24 hr of recovery. IRGA resulted in slight (approximately 40%) moisture loss from shoots initially averaging 368.9% moisture (S.E. = 9.96%), but did not cause a significant decrease in net photosynthesis within this range. 4) Tolerance of drying was tested on freshly collected, forest-acclimated moist shoots. Initial net photosynthesis (by IRGA) and moisture content were determined for replicate bundles of shoots. These were then subjected to drying for 1, 2, 4, 7, and 12 d, while control groups were stored at recovery conditions. Net photosynthesis and moisture content were re-measured after drying, and again after 24 hr of recovery. Moisture content of controls declined by approximately 40% during IRGA, and gradually thereafter in recovery conditions; net carbon gain declined over the course of the study. Moisture content of dried shoots declined by an order of magnitude in all treatments, but returned to near control levels after recovery. However, net photosynthesis dropped to zero with drying, and did not resume after rehydration. In view of the sensitivity of B. trilobata to laboratory drying, and its viability on a 2-yr-old clear-cut, we suggest that a) field conditions are neither as severe nor as prolonged as those tested in the laboratory and b) the colonial form prevents inner shoots from uniform exposure to severe conditions.
We sought a simple and effective transplant method that could be used to measure biomass accumulation rates of epiphytic bryophytes. Trials were carried out in the Pseudotsuga menziesii-dominated forests of western Oregon. We tested multiple transplant methods over a 13-month period while comparing accumulation rates of Antitrichia curtipendula (Hedw.) Brid. and Isothecium myosuroides Brid. among an old-growth stand, a young stand, and a recent clearcut. In our study area, Antitrichia is considered to be an old-growth associate while Isothecium is a more ubiquitous species. Methods tested included containment in net bags, containment in hairnets, and directly tying mats to substrates. Three sizes of transplants were tested with both natural and inert artificial substrates. Transplants of approximately five g enclosed in plastic net bags and tied to either natural or artificial substrates worked well for our purposes. Only minor differences were found in mean accumulation rates between the old growth and young stand, though variation in accumulation rates was higher in the old growth. Neither species appeared capable of surviving in the clearcut. Antitrichia accumulated biomass 60% faster in the canopy than in the understory on average. Antitrichia also accumulated at a faster rate than Isothecium, with mean 13-month biomass increases of 11.8 and 3.7% respectively for 5 g transplants in the understory. Our results suggest that Antitrichia's association with old growth may be due more to dispersal or establishment limitations than to a decreased ability to grow in young stands.
The reproductive biology of three sympatric species of Dicranoloma Ren. was investigated: D. billardierei (Brid. ex anon) Paris, D. menziesii (Taylor) Renauld, and D. platycaulon Dixon. The developmental stages of gametangia and sporophytes were identified for each species and a maturity index value assigned. Although archegonia were initiated after antheridia, archegonia matured within two months while antheridia took five to six months to reach maturity. Antheridia were initiated during winter and archegonia in spring in D. menziesii and D. platycaulon. In contrast, antheridia were initiated during late spring-summer and archegonia in autumn in D. billardierei. Fertilization occurred in late summer in D. menziesii, mid autumn in D. platycaulon, and early winter in D. billardierei. An overlap in sporophyte generations occurred in D. billardierei and D. platycaulon. Maturation of the sporophyte took 18–24 months in these species, whereas sporophytes of D. menziesii matured within 12 months.
The new pyrenocarpous lichen, Verrucaria kootenaica Breuss & Spribille, is described. It is characterized by a thickish, circular thallus with radiating marginal lobes and in having perithecia located in thalline warts. The species is presently known from streambeds in limestone areas of northwestern Montana and southeastern British Columbia.
Rinodina intermedia Bagl. is distinguished from R. conradii Körb. on the basis of its Type-A spore development, submuriform spores, and the presence of a new lichen substance, deoxylichesterinic acid. Both species are primarily ground dwelling and are mostly allopatric in their North American and world distributions, R. intermedia being warm temperate whereas R. conradii is cold temperate. Both species occur in Colorado, the Andes, and Himalaya Mountains, R. conradii being found at higher elevations. Rinodina diplinthia (Nyl.) Zahlbr., R. darrovii E. D. Rudolph, and R. conradii var. megaspora D. D. Awasthi & M. R. Agarwal are placed into synonomy for the first time. Lectotypes for R. lusitanica Arnold and R. sabulosa Tuck. are selected.
The lichen collection assembled by Dr. Henry Imshaug at the herbarium of Michigan State University (msc) is described. It is not only one of the largest in North America, but is notable also for its geographic range, including important collections from the Caribbean and several southern hemisphere island groups. Until recently this collection was not readily accessible, but it is now fully available to researchers through loans and visits.
Fissidens sublimbatus is reported new to Morocco and the Canary Islands (Spain). Differences with F. arnoldii, F. bambergeri, F. crispus, and F. megalotis subsp. helictocaulos are given. A map showing the world distribution of the species is included.