Five new species are described from the group of Hypogymnia with rimmed holes on the lower surface: H. bulbosa, H. congesta, H. diffractaica, H. laxa, and H. pseudocyphellata. All species in this group are restricted to the Himalayan region, primarily in southwestern China. Four other species in this group have previously been described: H. hengduanensis, H. kangdingensis, H. macrospora, and H. subvittata. Hypogymnia kangdingensis is synonymized with H. hengduanensis and Hypogymnia subvittata is synonymized with H. macrospora. Virensic acid (in H. congesta) and norbarbatic (4′-O-demethylbarbatic acid) are major lichen substances previously unreported from Hypogymnia.
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Vol. 106 • No. 2