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The Peltigera didactyla complex comprises species of section Peltigera with laminal and submarginal soredia. Three species (P. didactyla, P. lambinonii, and P. ulcerata) and one atypical variety (P. didactyla var. extenuata) are currently recognized within this complex. Phylogenetic inferences of the entire Internal Transcribed Spacer region (ITS) and the 5′ half of the gene encoding the large subunit of the rRNA reveal a robust structure within the complex. Under both the maximum parsimony and the maximum likelihood criterion, P. didactyla is resolved as a polyphyletic entity, whereas P. ulcerata, P. lambinonii, and P. didactyla var. extenuata are delimited as monophyletic entities. Peltigera didactyla var. extenuata appears basal within the group, whereas var. didactyla is nested within a clade that also comprises P. lambinonii and P. ulcerata. The polyphyly of P. didactyla is further characterized by the existence of populations that resemble var. extenuata, but differ by their brownish upper cortex. These populations, all from the boreal zone of Canada, compose a monophyletic group sister to the P. didactyla-P. lambinonii clade. For P. didactyla to satisfy a phylogenetic species concept, the var. extenuata is reinstated at the species level, and a new species, P. castanea, is described. Three populations sampled are characterized by unique sequences that may indicate the presence of additional cryptic taxa within the complex. A key to the accepted species is provided. The presence of P. lambinonii in Australia is confirmed and P. ulcerata is reported as new for Chile.
The McClelland Lake Wetland Complex is a large (3,481 ha), boreal, wetland complex dominated by peatlands located in northeastern Alberta, Canada. We intensively sampled the bryophyte flora in 44 sites chosen to capture all landscape features of the wetland. We furthermore partitioned these 44 sites into 67, structurally defined stands. One hundred and fourteen species of bryophytes (91 mosses and 23 hepatics) were found. Mean stand species richness is 16.6, with a range of 2–41 species. Thirty-nine species were recorded only 1–2 times in the 67 stands and these are defined as locally rare species. Additionally, 18 species were recorded that are currently on the Alberta Rare Species Tracking List (ANHIC), although commonness of some within the complex suggests regional under-collection. A strong relationship was found between species richness and locally rare species occurrence at both the site and stand levels. Neither species richness nor locally rare species occurrence is related to landscape position within the wetland complex nor to internal wetland chemical gradients. Both species richness and local species rarity are influenced by stand type and structure. Shrubby, wooded, or forested stands contain 70% of the locally rare species occurrences, and swamps and wooded fens are species rich habitats. Stands with high numbers of locally rare species also tend to be stands that have high species richness; however, not all stands with high species richness have high numbers of locally rare bryophytes. Indicators and assessment protocols based on rare species and richness are developed to define Key Habitats for this wetland complex. Criteria for Key Habitats are stands with both high species richness and high numbers of locally rare species—‘Category 6’ stands, and these are identified as significant features in developing management protocols for bryophyte species and wetland function. Six ‘Category 6’ stands capture 58% of the locally rare species and 90% of the total wetland species richness. All six Key Habitats are wooded or forested.
We studied bryophyte species composition on five tree species (Erica scoparia, Laurus azorica, Myrica faya, Ilex canariensis, and I. Perado) of the laurel forest on Tenerife in order to determine the dominant factors influencing bryophyte community structure. Most of the 37 bryophyte species we found (24 liverworts and 11 mosses) are facultative epiphytes; many were found on several tree species, while five occurred on all tree species. DCA and CCA indicated that bryophyte species composition is significantly related to tree species identity. For each tree species, bark characteristics, plot exposure (windward and leeward to the prevailing trade winds), height (50 or 130 cm), tree size, and uprightness have differing relationships to bryophyte species composition. Bryophyte growth forms appeared to relate to the moisture conditions of the tree bark.
Australasia is a center of endemism for the lichen genus Cladonia and its allies. The taxonomic diversity of this genus in New Zealand is remarkable, with approximately 60 species recognized. This paper treats 21 species of Cladonia, including eight new taxa: C. cyanopora, C. darwinii, C. fuscofunda, C. gallowayi, C. incerta, C. pulchra, C. nitidella, and C. strangulata. Eight additional species not previously known from New Zealand are also discussed.
The type material of the early Bridelian moss name Grimmia strigosa Brid. is reconsidered. It consists of seven shoots containing a mixture of two species belonging to Schistidium Bruch & Schimp. and Racomitrium Brid. There is a single shoot of what is currently considered Schistidium papillosum Culm., and the other six shoots are Racomitrium microcarpon (Hedw.) Brid. In order to avoid disruption of nomenclature and in order to retain the current usage of the long used name, Schistidium papillosum, the name Grimmia strigosa is lectotypified with the material that represents Racomitrium microcarpon and, accordingly, it is here placed in synonymy with the latter name. Details of the lectotype material are illustrated.
Sphagnum alaskense Andrus & Janssens, sp. nov. is described as a new species in section Sphagnum. It is a weakly to moderately minerotrophic species occurring from Alaska south to the state of Washington. Sphagnum alaskense differs from S. centrale on the basis of weak or absent stem cortical cell fibrils, branch chlorophyll cells lacking thickened end walls in transverse section, and branch leaf hyaline cells often with ridges running parallel to the long axis of the leaf where the hyaline cells overlap the overlying chlorophyll cells.
Cellulose-acetate disks were found convenient for the cultivation of lichen mycobionts and artificial resynthesis and culture of the lichen Cladonia cristatella. These cost-effective disks solve many resynthesis problems, as they are easily sterilized to facilitate mycobiont establishment. They also permit transfer of mycobiont cultures to nutrient-poor agar stimulating hyphal branching which is conducive to lichenization, with minimal carry over of the original medium. Mycobionts on cellulose-acetate disks can be directly inoculated with photobionts and preweighing permits growth of re-synthesized lichens to be monitored easily.
Acroscyphus sphaerophoroides Lév. is reported new to Washington State (U.S.A.) Previously this rare and monotypic fruticose lichen has been reported from North America only in Veracruz, Mexico and British Columbia, Canada. We are unable to verify the collection from Mexico at this time, however it's locality near Perote in the highlands of southern Mexico fits with a southern extension of boreal forests down the cordilleras of western North America, and an overall disjunct worldwide distribution from high exposed regions of China, Japan, Peru, Patagonia, and South Africa. Listing of this species as critically imperiled is strongly recommended for Washington State.
The new combination, Josefpoeltia parva (Räs.) Frödén & L. Lindblom with the basionym Xanthoria parva Räs., is made. The type species of Josefpoeltia, J. boliviensis, is reduced to synonymy with J. parva. The length of the conidia varies in J. parva showing a north-south gradient.
Schistochila yakushimensis is described as new from Japan and Thailand. The species, belonging to sect. Sciureae, is characterized by two distinct leaf-wings, almost entire leaf margins, and non-lamellate lateral leaves and underleaves.
A new monospecific genus, Benitotania, is described on the basis of B. elimbata H. Akiyama, T. Yamag, & M. Suleiman, collected in the northern part of Sabah, Malaysia. It appears to be most closely related to Adelothecium and Bryobrothera.
Twenty-seven species of lichenicolous fungi (five of which are lichenized) are reported from Interior Alaska. Arthophacopsis parmeliarum (Sommerf.) Arnold, Capronia peltigerae (Fuckel) D. Hawksw., Merismatium heterophractum (Nyl.) Vouaux, Phomapeltigerae (P. Karst.) D. Hawksw., Roselliniella peltigericola D. Hawksw. & Miadlikowska, and Stigmidium pseudopeltideae Cl. Roux & Triebel are reported from North America for the first time. Corticifraga peltigerae (Nyl.) D. Hawksw. & R. Sant., Refractohilum peltigerae (Keissl.) D. Hawksw., and Vezdaea acicularis Coppins are here reported new to the United States.