We studied epiphytic macrolichen communities in northern and central California to 1) describe how gradients in community composition relate to climate, topography, and stand structure and 2) define subregions of relatively homogeneous lichen communities and environmental conditions. Non-metric multidimensional scaling was used to characterize landscape-level trends in lichen community composition from 211 plots. We found two gradients in lichen community composition that corresponded with macroclimatic gradients: one correlated with temperature variables and elevation, the second with moisture variables. Moist, warm plots supported more cyanolichen species, while warm but dry plots supported a diverse nitrophilous flora. Ammonia pollution, which was not accounted for in the analysis, may also explain spatial patterns in nitrophilous species and deserves further study. Cluster analysis and indicator species analysis were used to divide lichen communities into more homogeneous groups and identify group indicator species. Three groups of plots differing in geography, macroclimate, and community composition were defined: the Greater Central Valley group; the Sierra, Southern Cascades, and Modoc group; and the NW Coast group. Communities in the Greater Central Valley group were typically diverse and dominated by nitrophilous species, averaging 14 species and 40% nitrophiles. Cyanolichens common to this group were mainly diminuitive species from the genera Leptogium and Collema. Indicator species strongly associated with the Greater Central Valley included Melanelia glabra, Candelaria concolor, and Parmelina quercina. Communities from the Sierra, Southern Cascades, and Modoc group had the lowest species richness and total lichen abundance. Cyanolichens were absent, while nitrophiles such as Candelaria concolor and Xanthoria fulva were frequent. Indicator species included Letharia vulpina, L. columbiana, and Nodobryoria abbreviata. The NW Coast group had the highest species richness, cyanolichen diversity, and cyanolichen abundance while nitrophiles were rare. Indicator species included Platismatia glauca, Esslingeriana idahoensis, and Cetraria orbata.
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Vol. 107 • No. 3