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3 January 2017 The 2016 classification of lichenized fungi in the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota – Approaching one thousand genera
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Abstract

Ninety years after Zahlbruckner, we present the most recent update to the classification of lichen fungi in the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota to genus level, with species numbers and references to changes compared to the 2010 Outline of Ascomycota and other recent classifications. Updated statistics on global species richness of lichen fungi and species richness at family, order and class level are given. The number of accepted species is 19,387 in 995 genera, 115 families, 39 orders and eight classes. Lichenized Basidiomycota amount to 172 species (0.9% of the total), 15 genera (1.5%), five families (4.3%), five orders (12.8%) and one class (12.5%). The most speciose genera are Xanthoparmelia, Lecanora, Arthonia, Cladonia, Pertusaria, Ocellularia, Graphis, Caloplaca, Usnea and Buellia. The average number of species per genus is 19.5 and 256 genera are monospecific. Using newly defined categories, two genera (Xanthoparmelia, Lecanora) are ultradiverse (more than 500 species), 17 hyperdiverse (201–500 species) and 12 megadiverse (101–200). The largest family is Parmeliaceae, with 2,765 species and 77 genera, followed by Graphidaceae (2,161; 79), Verrucariaceae (943; 43), Ramalinaceae (916; 43) and Lecanoraceae (791; 25). The largest order is Lecanorales, with 6,231 species and 234 genera, followed by Ostropales (3,261; 138), Arthoniales (1,541, 103), Peltigerales (1,301; 67) and Caliciales (1,276; 55). The largest class is Lecanoromycetes, with 15,131 species and 701 genera, followed by Arthoniomycetes (1,541; 103), Eurotiomycetes (1,203; 63), Dothideomycetes (812; 39) and Lichinomycetes (390; 50). A total of 751 out of 995 genera (75%) have molecular data. Fifty-nine genera remain in unresolved positions at the family, order or class level. The phylogenetic position of the 39 orders containing lichenized fungi suggests 20–30 independent lichenization events during the evolution of higher Fungi, 14–23 in the Ascomycota and 6–7 in the Basidiomycota. The following names are validated: Candelariomycetidae Miądl. et al. ex Timdal & M.Westb. subcl. nov., Cystocoleaceae Locq. ex Lücking, B.P.Hodk. & S.D.Leav. fam. nov, Letrouitineae Gaya & Lutzoni subordo nov., Rhizocarpales Miądl. & Lutzoni ordo nov. and Teloschistineae Gaya & Lutzoni subordo nov. Lectotypes are designated for Clathroporinopsis M.Choisy and Protoschistes M.Choisy, making both synonyms of Gyalecta Ach., and Stromatothelium Trevis., making it a synonym of Pyrenula Ach. Members of Cyphobasidiales, which are here interpreted as hyperlichenized fungi, as well as fossil lichen fungi, are added in additional classifications in two appendices.

Copyright ©2016 by The American Bryological and Lichenological Society, Inc.
Robert Lücking, Brendan P. Hodkinson, and Steven D. Leavitt "The 2016 classification of lichenized fungi in the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota – Approaching one thousand genera," The Bryologist 119(4), (3 January 2017). https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-119.4.361
Received: 13 October 2016; Accepted: 1 November 2016; Published: 3 January 2017
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