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22 August 2022 New species of lichenized fungi from Brazil, with a record report of 492 species in a small area of the Amazon Forest
André Aptroot, Maria Fernanda de Souza, Lidiane Alves dos Santos, Isaias Oliveira Junior, Bruno Micael Cardoso Barbosa, Marcela Eugenia Cáceres da Silva
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Abstract

We report a record lichen biodiversity from a small area in the Brazilian Amazon, with 492 identifiable lichen species within nine hectares of protected forest, in the Cristalino Reserve in Mato Grosso, Brazil, collected during one week. This is already an absolute world record, but given our observations while in the field, and the fact that we sampled only a small fraction to the area, we hypothesize that the number of species in this area could be even much higher, well establishing that lichen biodiversity per area in the tropics is higher than elsewhere. Among the species reported, two are new to the southern hemisphere, nine are new to the Neotropics, 30 are first reports for Brazil, and 247 are new to Mato Grosso state. We also describe 40 new lichenized fungi species, mainly from the Amazon, 19 of which are from Cristalino Reserve: Aggregatorygma lichexanthonicum, Allographa pruinodisca, Architrypethelium submuriforme, Astrothelium gyalostiolatum, A. infravulcanum, A. inspersonitidulum, A. parathelioides, A. quintannulare, A. quintosulphureum, A. squamosum, A. stromatocinnamomeum, A. xanthosordithecium, Caloplaca cinereosquamosa, Carbacanthographis tetrinspersa, Cladonia megafurcata, Coniarthonia echinospora, C. micromuralis, Coniocarpon foliicola, Cresponea pallidosorediata, Cryptothecia demethylconfluentica, C. methylperlatolica, C. parvopsoromica, Fissurina isohypocrellina, Heterodermia apicalis, Lecidella fuliginea, Malmidea densisidiata, M. nigra, Mazosia flavida, Multisporidea conidiophora, Porina albotomentosa, P. muralisidiata, Psorinia cyanea, Ramboldia badia, Saxiloba pruinosa, Sclerophyton perithecioideum, Sporopodium soredioflavescens, Synarthonia xanthonica, Tingiopsidium tropicum, Tylophoron rufescens, and Viridothelium sinuosogelatinosum. Identification keys are given to the Brazilian species of Coniarthonia and Cryptothecia.

Copyright ©2022 by The American Bryological and Lichenological Society, Inc.
André Aptroot, Maria Fernanda de Souza, Lidiane Alves dos Santos, Isaias Oliveira Junior, Bruno Micael Cardoso Barbosa, and Marcela Eugenia Cáceres da Silva "New species of lichenized fungi from Brazil, with a record report of 492 species in a small area of the Amazon Forest," The Bryologist 125(3), 435-467, (22 August 2022). https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-125.3.433
Received: 28 December 2021; Accepted: 3 June 2022; Published: 22 August 2022
KEYWORDS
Argentina
Arthoniaceae
biodiversity
Lichens
Mato Grosso
Reserva Cristalino
Trypetheliaceae
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