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A taxonomic study of Megarthrus Curtis in Korea is presented. The genus is represented in Korea by 10 species including M. coreanus Kim and Cuccodoro sp. nov.Megarthrus corticalis Sharp, M. fennicus Lahtinen, M. incubifer Cuccodoro, M. japonicus Sharp, M. montanus Sawada, M. sawadai Cuccodoro, and M. zerchei Cuccodoro and Löbl are reported from Korea for the first time. A diagnosis of the genus and a key to the Korean species are provided. The new species is diagnosed, described, and illustrated and the other species are diagnosed and illustrated. Species distributions are presented, and the effect of these Korean findings on the level of endemism of the Megarthrus fauna of Japan and Far East Russia is discussed.
Study of specimens of Merodon Meigen collected in southwestern Europe resulted in new data and taxonomic changes for this genus. The cryptic species Merodon confusussp. nov. (Merodon equestris species group) is described based on specimens collected in Cabañeros National Park, central Spain. Morphological and molecular diagnostic characters are provided to separate members of the species group. Merodon aeneus fulvus Gil Collado is proposed as a junior synonym of Merodon pumilus Macquart. The first Iberian record of Merodon rufus Meigen is reported and updates of the revision of Iberian Merodon are provided.
A new genus and species of microphysid bug is described and illustrated from two individuals preserved in Late Cretaceous (Campanian) amber from Alberta, Canada. Popovophysa entzmingerigen. et sp. nov. is distinguished from its fossil and modern counterparts. The new species has attributes of the two currently recognized subfamilies Ciorullinae and Microphysinae, suggesting that those taxa may not be distinct and are in need of cladistic analysis.
Syneches Walker from Fiji is revised, including the description of two new species: S. bezziisp. nov. and S. insolitussp. nov. A lectotype is designated for S. pullus Bezzi and a key to the five recognized species is provided. Epiceia Walker, Harpamerus Bigot syn. nov., and Parahybos Kertész syn. nov. are considered congeneric with Syneches; all species affected by these changes are listed, including the following new replacement names: S. meijereinom. nov. and S. yanginom. nov.
We examined mate-finding behaviour in Agrilus subcinctus Gory (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and Agrilus cyanescens Ratzeburg (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in ash (Fraxinus L. (Oleaceae)) stands in the Great Lakes region of the United States of America. Dead specimens of both species were affixed to ash foliage to serve as models to test visual stimulation of aerial attraction of males. The models were washed in dichloromethane to remove cuticular lipids or were left unwashed, to test for the presence of close-range pheromonal cues. Males of both species located females via a visually guided aerial approach from up to 1 m above females, similar to the behaviour of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. When male A. subcinctus or A. cyanescens made contact with females, contact sex pheromones mediated subsequent copulation behaviour. During their visually mediated airborne descent and landing, male A. cyanescens landed directly on female models; whereas, male A. subcinctus landed significantly more often on the leaf surface supporting a model. Male A. subcintus performed precopulatory pounce behaviour on female models after assessing surface chemical cues with their antennae. Male A. cyanescens landed upon a variety of models, but after landing, rejected a significant proportion of models lacking female A. cyanescens cuticular lipids.
We analyzed nitrogen (N) content in phloem and xylem of 75 northern red oak, Quercus rubra L. (Fagaceae), removed in 2002–2007 from three sites within the Ozark National Forest, Arkansas, to investigate the relationship between vascular tissue N status and wood borer infestation. Populations of native red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), experienced an outbreak and population crash during the sampling period. Vascular tissue N was not correlated with borer infestation density (exit holes/m-2/bark surface), which suggests variation in N status of vascular tissue was not influenced by or did not influence borer success. Vascular tissue N was greater in trees sampled during winter months than in trees sampled in spring and summer months.
A choice feeding bioassay was used to investigate the effects of artificial diet components on the repellency of larval oral secretions from western spruce budworm, Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman, to conspecific larvae. Oral secretions from insects fed on agar supplemented with linseed oil were as repellent as secretions from insects fed on complete artificial diet. Secretions from insects fed on agar alone, agar and casein, or agar and wheat germ were not significantly more repellent than distilled water; neither was linseed oil alone. Linseed oil consists of glycerides of several fatty acids, which are likely metabolized quickly in the insect gut; repellency of oral secretions could be due to any of the related fatty acids or metabolites.
Female wheat midges, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), were provided with wheat spikes, Triticum aestivum L. (Poaceae), for oviposition while being exposed to air that had passed over wheat spikes of contrasting genotype or growth stage. Spikes of postanthesis ‘Roblin’ and preanthesis ‘Key 10’ are known to deter oviposition. Volatiles emitted by these spikes suppressed oviposition on preanthesis ‘Roblin’, which is preferred for oviposition. Volatiles emitted by spikes of preanthesis ‘Roblin’ did not increase oviposition on preanthesis ‘Key 10’. Reduced oviposition on a resistant genotype and on a deterrent growth stage of wheat is consistent with production of deterrent volatiles rather than a lack of stimulatory volatiles.
Biodiversity & Evolution/Biodiversité et evolution
The life history of Neoplasta parahebes MacDonald and Turner in a mountain stream in Southern California is reported. Female N. parahebes were separated from sympatric female Neoplasta hebes Melander by ovipositor morphology. Adults readily fed on adult midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) smaller than themselves. Ovarioles of gravid females contained an average of 74.8 eggs. Mating occurred in a unidirectional position. Females oviposited under the bark of submerged decaying wood. Eggs averaged 459 µm × 115 µm in size; most were laid within a 24 h period and, at room temperature, hatched in 10–11 days. There are three larval instars. Densities of larval N. parahebes were as high as 9.2 per 100 cm of wood surface in submerged dead tree branches. Branches also contained larvae of Orthocladius lignicola Kieffer, a wood-boring chironomid; larval N. parahebes readily fed on the midge larvae in their tunnels. Pupation occurred in the decaying wood.
In Europe, Ceutorhynchus turbatus Schultze and Ceutorhynchus typhae (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) feed on seeds from hoary cress and shepherd's purse (Cardaria draba (L.) Desv. and Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.); both plants are invasive in North America. In North America, C. turbatus is a candidate for biological control of hoary cress, C. typhae is adventive, and both are sympatric with cabbage seedpod weevil (Ceutorhynchus obstrictus (Marsham)), an invasive alien pest of canola (Brassica napus L. and Brassica rapa L., Brassicaceae). We investigated host associations among C. turbatus, C. typhae, and their parasitoids in Europe. Of particular interest was host specificity of Trichomalus perfectus (Walker) and Mesopolobus morys (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), candidates for biological control of C. obstrictus in North America. We found no evidence that T. perfectus attacks C. turbatus or C. typhae; however, M. morys was the most common parasitoid associated with C. turbatus.
Overwintered pupae of fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea (Drury), were collected from 38 hazelnut (Corylus avellana L. (Betulaceae)) plantations in Samsun province, Turkey, in 2008 and 2009. Four chalcidoid (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) species were reared: Chouioia cunea Yang (Eulophidae), Conomorium amplum (Walker), Dibrachys boarmiae (Walker), and Psychophagus omnivorus (Walker) (Pteromalidae). Overall parasitism was 11.97% and 4.84% for 2008 and 2009, respectively; species richness on sites ranged from one to three species. Psychophagus omnivorus parasitised 6.7% of all pupae and comprised 79% of chalcidoid rearings. Chouioia cunea had the highest clutch average (117) and female:male ratio (44.5:1). Records of Chouioia cunea and Conomorium amplum are new for Turkey and, except for P. omnivorus, all parasitoids are new records for H. cunea in Turkey.
Effective management of Chinese citrus fly, Bactrocera minax (Enderlein) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is hindered by a lack of knowledge about its movements. We determined the feasibility of using harmonic radar technology to measure natural dispersal of B. minax. Tests demonstrated that 3.8 mg tags representing 8% of average insect weight had no visible impact on the ability of flies to takeoff and maintain flight. More than 86% of flies retained their tags for at least 5 days, and there was no significant mortality. Neither adhesive tested for tag mounting affected the survival of flies. Presence of the vertical dorsal tag did not prevent or hamper vertical movement. Together, results validate the use of tags weighing up to 3.8 mg for radar or telemetric study of dispersal ecology of B. minax.