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The phenology of Fulcidax monstrosa (F.) on its host plant Byrsonima sericea DC. was studied from November 2000 to June 2003 at the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. During this period, observations on the biology and behavior of the species were also conducted in the field and in laboratory. The female lays single eggs on young stems of its host plant and covers them with feces, building an excremental shell. The hatched larva remains within it and adds more of its own feces to the case as it grows. After a maximum of four months, the larva pupates within the case, which remains closed for another four months before adult emergence. Diapause seems to occur in the adult stage inside the pupal case before emergence. Fulcidax monstrosa is a univoltine species and showed a highly seasonal distribution along the years for all stages of development. Climatic factors as well as resource availability are suggested to influence the species seasonality.
Two new genera of Agathidiini are described and revised: Gelae Miller and Wheeler, new genus and Decuria Miller and Wheeler, new genus. Gelae differs from other agathidiines by having 11 antennomeres, a distinctly 3-segmented antennal club, no supraocular carina, no postocular temporum, 5–4–4 female tarsal formula and obsolete dorsal punctation, or, if present, inconspicuous and not serially arranged. Decuria differs from other agathidiines by having 10 antennomeres. The dramatically poor taxonomic condition of genera in the Agathidiini is discussed and problems are identified. A key to the genera of Agathidiini is presented. The following new combinations are proposed: Gelae parile (Fall), new combination, G. parvulum (LeConte), new combination, and G. cognatum (Matthews), new combination. Each are transferred from Agathidium Panzer. The following new species are described: Gelae rol, new species, G. fish, new species, G. donut, new species, G. baen, new species, G. belae, new species, and Decuria newtoni, new species. A lectotype is designated for Agathidium parile Fall.
Larvae of the leaf beetle Eurypedus nigrosignatus Boheman carry fecula and cast skins on their dorsa forming a protective device, commonly called a fecal shield. Survival from egg to adult eclosion, natural enemies, and relation to its hostplant, Cordia curassavica (Jacq.) Roem. and Schult. (Boraginaceae) were assessed. Overall survival was 2%; eggs and fourth instars were less susceptible to enemies than were early larval stages and pupae. Predation accounted for the low survival of larvae, whereas parasitism for a low success rate of pupae. Six different predators including three spiders (Arachnida), a pentatomid, a reduviid (Heteroptera), and an ant (Hymenoptera) were observed. Reared parasitoids included a chalcidid (Hymenoptera) and a tachinid (Diptera). The fecal shield increases in size throughout larval development; however, the shield of prepupal individuals is partially lost. Shield chemical content very closely reassambles that of a particular host plant. Although the lower terpenoid concentration (per weight) in shields decreases with larval development, bigger shields as a unit contain larger amounts. Adults spend the Panamanian dry season buried in the ground directly under host plants. Eurypedus nigrosignatus is under intense selective pressures in Central Panama.
Through physiological ovary studies and the use of indoor systems, we improved egg production and offspring survival of Copris tripartitus Waterhouse. We also tested the effects of a lack of maternal care on offspring. Second larval instars died when brood balls were separated from females. Third instar larvae or pupal stage survival was significantly lower than that recorded in brood balls cared for by females. New adult body weights and pronotal sizes were also significantly lower in those emerged from brood balls separated from mothers than those cared for by them. The results shed light on the survival and reproduction of adults that emerged indoors as compared to those observed in populations under natural conditions.
Timbarabanew genus, and Timbaraba disparnew species (Torneutini: Bothriospilina) are described from Venezuela (Maracaibo). Some taxonomic notes on Xenambyx lansbergei (Thomson) are also included. Xenambyx lansbergei lansbergei (Thomson) and X. lansbergei laticauda Bates are considered intraspecific variations.
Six new taxa and a new combination of Shigizo from China, Malaysia, Philippines and Vietnam are described. New taxa include Shigizo morimotoinew species (China), Shigizo zhanginew species (China), Shigizo basofasciatusnew species (Philippines), Shigizo davidinew species (Philippines), Shigizo perrinaenew species (Vietnam) and Shigizo tonkinensisnew species (Vietnam). Curculio obsoletus (Heller) from Brunei on the island of Borneo is combined as Shigizo obsoletus (Heller) new combination.
This paper describes the development and life history of a Korean native dung beetle, Copris ochus (Motschulsky), based on laboratory studies of beetles collected from the subtropical island of Je-Ju. The species is brood-caring and has an annual life cycle. Females lay a single batch of eggs in late summer or early autumn. Larvae develop to the 3rd instar and enter diapause before the onset of winter. Diapause is terminated by low winter temperatures that also prevent pupation until spring. Parents and progeny emerge together in mid-summer and undergo a period of intensive feeding before oviposition in late summer or early autumn. Some adults are present early in May–June and may represent insects that overwintered without breeding, or adults that emerged early because of the premature death of their offspring. Males and females co-operate in construction a brood chamber that is provisioned with fresh dung for oviposition. The chamber is commonly formed at depths of 22–35 cm below the surface and may contain 2–5 brood balls. Brood balls are generally pear-shaped (4.1 ± 0.4 cm long and 3.8 ± 0.3 cm in diameter), and each contains a single egg. Females lay an average of one egg for every 45 ml of dung buried (n = 26). At 25°C, the duration of embryonic development is 9.0 ± 1.7 days, followed by 6.1 ± 1.0 and 7.8 ± 1.9 days for the 1st and 2nd larval instars respectively. The duration of the third instar was indeterminate because this is the stage at which larvae enter diapause. This state of arrested growth persists over winter but development resumes in spring as temperatures begin to rise. In the laboratory, larvae were able to pupate at 25°C but only after they were exposed to a period of chilling, the optimum conditions for diapause termination being 30 days at 7.5°C. Under this combination of low and high temperatures, egg to adult development was completed in 26 weeks.
Badioglobus tapanti, new genus, new species (Hydrophilidae: Sphaeridiinae: Coelostomatini), from Costa Rica is described and illustrated. Badioglobus is distinguished from other genera of Coelostomatini by the short first metatarsal segment, widely spaced gular sutures, distinct notosternal sutures, and its large size. A key to the Central American genera of Coelostomatini is presented.
Species of the genus Gyretes Brullé of America north of Mexico are reviewed. Morphological variation among species is characterized using multivariate analyses. Three species are recognized: Gyretes iricolor Young, G. sinuatus LeConte and G. torosusnew species. Gyretes compressus LeConte and G. californicus Régimbart are synonymized under G. sinuatusnew synonymies. Diagnoses, illustrations, and a key to identify species from America north of Mexico are provided.
A flight intercept trap was used for 12 days on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, to assay the diversity of staphylinid beetles, and to provide data on which are diurnal and/or nocturnal. The trap was sampled twice over a 24 h period, providing data for diurnal/nocturnal activity for these beetles. In total 1,349 specimens and 35 genera of Staphylinidae were caught, representing nine subfamilies. Of these 1,349 specimens, 1036 (76.8%, P < 0.01 t-test) were caught during the day, and 313 (23.2%) were caught during the night. Aleocharinae is the most abundant subfamily (57.5%), followed by Staphylininae (13.1%). Details are given for the diurnal/nocturnal activity of each taxon captured.
Bryothinusa hauserinew species (Type Locality; Malaysia, Malay Peninsula, 40 mi N of Kuala Dungan) from Malaysia is described and illustrations of habitus and structural features are provided to distinguish it from other species of Bryothinusa. The systematic placement of B. hauseri within Bryothinusa and the systematic limits of Bryothinusa are discussed. The world distribution of the genus is outlined and a map showing the distribution of known species is provided. An annotated catalog of the known species of Bryothinusa is provided.
A new species of Peploglyptus LeConte (Peploglyptus mulu Caterino), previously known only from the Americas, is described from Malaysia. Like the New World species, P. mulu possesses pronotal and prosternal trichomes, indicative of myrmecophilous associations.
Johnson and Kingsolver (1981) estimated that there were 140 species of Bruchidae in Mexico. We now know that there are at least 334 species in 23 genera of Bruchidae in Mexico. This increase is due to research that has produced new distribution records and new species. In the checklist the species are listed by genus and distribution records are given for each species. Brief histories on the work of researchers in the New World and estimates of numbers species of bruchids in the New World and worldwide are given. Four names are excluded from a checklist of bruchids of the New World for a variety of reasons. Bruchus ingaeFåhraeus (1839) has only been found in southern South America and the original designation from Mexico is considered to be in error. Bruchus serraticornis (Fabricius) was published by Fabricius (1775) on page 65 with a locality as “Habitat in Oriente.” Blackwelder (1946) indicated that serraticornis was published by Fabricius (1775) on page 66 (erroneously) and was from “Mexico, Old World.” In several recent papers European entomologists (Decelle and Lodos 1989; Borowiec and Anton 1993; Anton et al. 1997) indicated that serraticornis (Fabricius) was in the Old World genus Bruchidius. The name is therefore excluded. Bruchus triangularisSay (1831:1) and B. oculatusSay (1831:2), both from Mexico, were among the species described by Say (1831) whose types were apparently lost. These names cannot be applied to any species with any degree of certainty because of inadequate descriptions by Say. They continue to appear on checklists but not in the literature, so after 170 years we consider them to be nomina dubia and therefore they were removed from the checklist.
The ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Caelostomini) Stegazopteryx ivimkaensisnew genus and species, is described from Ivimka Research Station, New Guinea. Its highly modified elytral form separates this species from all others in the tribe. Only Diachipteryx Straneo from Africa has somewhat similarly modified elytra.
The purpose of the experiments presented in this paper was to investigate methods for rearing larvae and pupae of the rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, on rice plants in a laboratory in the absence of mud. Rearing containers were developed in which larvae were reared in a layer of rice roots in water. When mating pairs of adult weevils were used to infest plants, these methods were sufficient to rear weevils from eclosion of eggs to the final instar. When neonates were used to infest rice seedlings in the rearing containers, over 40% of the infesting larvae in two repetitions developed to the 3rd or 4th instar; this rate of survival was not significantly different than survival rates of larvae reared in mud. When 3rd instars were individually reared in water in test tubes with rice plants, 55.0% of the insects were alive and developing normally on the 15th day after infestation. Other experiments demonstrated that late-instar larvae and pupae of the rice water weevil may be reared in vermiculite rather than in mud. The experimental results suggest that the methods introduced in this paper for rearing the rice water weevil in water and vermiculite are appropriate for the production of test insects for a variety of experiments in the laboratory.
Examination of the holotype and comparison to other material reveal that the monotypic genus Longasphaera Bechyné is a junior synonym of Omophoita Chevrolat new synonymy. Therefore, the type species of Longasphaera, L. hispicornis Bechyné is given a new combination,O. hispicornis (Bechyné). Omophoita hispicornis is illustrated for the first time and characteristics of its labral setation that partially define the Bechyné concept of genus Omophoita are discussed.
Quetarsius peteri, a new species of quediine rove beetle from southeast China is described. Now the genus Quetarsius Smetana includes three species: the earlier described Q. neu Smetana and Q. jeau Smetana, both endemic to Taiwan; and Q. peteri from the Asian mainland adjacent to Taiwan. The taxonomic history of Quetarsius is summarized.
First instars hatched from eggs laid by adults of Coptotomus interrogatus (Fabricius) are described and illustrated with an emphasis on cranial morphology. Cranial horns are described as arising from within the frontoclypeal interior and not the distal margin. The distal margin of the frontoclypeus forms a short broadly-rounded nasale with a sub-rectangular labrum inflected onto the epipharynx. The cranial morphology supports a close phyletic relationship between Coptotominae and Laccophilinae.