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The status of the subtribes of Scaphisomatini was examined by a cladistic analysis of 47 terminal taxa and 110 adult characters. Based on 57 parsimonious trees and pruned data sets that excluded enigmatic taxa we demonstrated that the scaphisomatine subtribes are paraphyletic. All pre-existing subtribes are synonymized under Scaphisomatini. Although several monophyletic groups are supported, none are attributed subtribal status. Six genera are described as new: Tritoxidiumnew genus (type species: Toxidium indicum Achard), Bertiscaphanew genus with three new species (type species: Bertiscapha compacta n. sp.; B. burlischi n. sp., B. striata n. sp.), Sphaeroscaphanew genus (type species: Pseudobironium globosum Löbl), Kasibaeoceranew genus (type species: Baeocera mussardi Löbl), Spinoscaphanew genus (type species: Brachynopus rufus (Broun)), Vickibellanew genus (type species: Brachynopus apicellus (Broun)). A new species of Kathetopodium Löbl is described (K. kiunganum new species). Synonymies are as follows: Vituratella Reitter (=Antongilium Pic, 25 new combinations; =Mysthrix Champion, two new combinations; =Termitotoxidium Pic, one new combination; =Trichoscaphella Reitter, one new combination), Scaphobaeocera Csiki (=Baeotoxidium Löbl; seven new combinations); Scaphisoma Leach (=Caryoscapha Ganglbauer; four new combinations; =Macroscaphosoma Löbl; two new combinations). Toxidium mauritianum Vinson is transferred to Xotidium Löbl. A key to the world genera of Scaphisomatini is included.