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The status of the subtribes of Scaphisomatini was examined by a cladistic analysis of 47 terminal taxa and 110 adult characters. Based on 57 parsimonious trees and pruned data sets that excluded enigmatic taxa we demonstrated that the scaphisomatine subtribes are paraphyletic. All pre-existing subtribes are synonymized under Scaphisomatini. Although several monophyletic groups are supported, none are attributed subtribal status. Six genera are described as new: Tritoxidiumnew genus (type species: Toxidium indicum Achard), Bertiscaphanew genus with three new species (type species: Bertiscapha compacta n. sp.; B. burlischi n. sp., B. striata n. sp.), Sphaeroscaphanew genus (type species: Pseudobironium globosum Löbl), Kasibaeoceranew genus (type species: Baeocera mussardi Löbl), Spinoscaphanew genus (type species: Brachynopus rufus (Broun)), Vickibellanew genus (type species: Brachynopus apicellus (Broun)). A new species of Kathetopodium Löbl is described (K. kiunganum new species). Synonymies are as follows: Vituratella Reitter (=Antongilium Pic, 25 new combinations; =Mysthrix Champion, two new combinations; =Termitotoxidium Pic, one new combination; =Trichoscaphella Reitter, one new combination), Scaphobaeocera Csiki (=Baeotoxidium Löbl; seven new combinations); Scaphisoma Leach (=Caryoscapha Ganglbauer; four new combinations; =Macroscaphosoma Löbl; two new combinations). Toxidium mauritianum Vinson is transferred to Xotidium Löbl. A key to the world genera of Scaphisomatini is included.
Myxomycete feeding evolved once, or twice, though lack of natural history data compromises reconstructions of ancestral nodes due to unknown character states. Termitophily has evolved once in the Baeoceridium group, a monophyletic group that is sympatric with macrotermitine termites that cultivate fungi in the Old World. A laterally compressed body form evolved several times and may be associated with moving through pre-existing spaces in leaf litter and rotting wood. Having the meso- and metacoxal-trochanteral articulations perched at a medial position in the body of laterally compressed taxa allows for leg movements through more horizontal planes relative to the position of the body. The prothoracic corbiculum, a feature unique to Scaphisomatini, evolved repeatedly in the tribe and does not appear to be correlated with natural history traits. The corbiculum is derived from tracheal tissue and may be used in respiration or water retention.