Seven new species, two new combinations, two new synonyms, and four new country records of Elaphidiini longhorned woodborers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from the Dominican Republic are presented. Elaphidion compressipenne Fisher is transferred to Ceresium Newman as C. compressipenne (Fisher), new combination. Callidium lucidum Olivier is transferred to Metaphrenon Martins as M. lucidum (Olivier), new combination. A neotype (USNM) is designated for Elaphidion fullonium Newman, and Elaphidion confusum Fisher is a new synonym of that species. Elaphidion pilosum Fisher is a new synonym of Anelaphus mutatum (Gahan). Nesiosphaerion testaceum (Fisher), Anelaphus crispulum (Fisher), and Elaphidion androsensis Fisher are recorded for the first time from the Dominican Republic. Taxonomic confusion concerning Elaphidion bidens (Fabricius) is clarified. The following new species are described from the Dominican Republic: Anelaphus praeclarus Lingafelter (type locality: Guaraguao, La Altagracia Prov.), Nesiosphaerion charynae Lingafelter (type locality: Cabo Rojo, Pedernales Prov.), Psyrassa woodleyi Lingafelter (type locality: Road 47 between Los Pinos and Angel Félix, Independencia Prov.), Elaphidion auricoma Lingafelter (type locality: Guaraguao, La Altagracia Prov.), Elaphidion iviei Lingafelter (type locality: Filipinas, Barahona Prov.), Elaphidion nearnsi Lingafelter (type locality: Punta Cana, La Altagracia Prov.), and Elaphidion wappesi Lingafelter (type locality: Puerto Plata, Puerto Plata Prov.). A key to the twelve Elaphidion species from Hispaniola is provided.
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