Larval records, distributional records, biological information, and comments on probable erroneous literature records are presented for 55 species and subspecies of North American Cerambycidae in the genera Mallodon Lacordaire, Orthosoma Audinet-Serville, Aethecerinus Fall and Cockerell, Aneflomorpha Casey, Anelaphus Linsley, Calloides LeConte, Cyrtophorus LeConte, Eburia Lacordaire, Elaphidionopsis Linsley, Elytroleptus Dugés, Enaphalodes Haldeman, Euderces LeConte, Heterachthes Newman, Lissonotus Dalman, Megacyllene Casey, Microclytus LeConte, Neaneflus Linsley, Neoclytus Thomson, Obrium Dejean, Pentanodes Schaeffer, Phymatodes Mulsant, Piezocera Audinet-Serville, Pilostenaspis Eya, Psyrassa Pascoe, Purpuricenus Dejean, Rosalia Audinet-Serville, Semanotus Mulsant, Stenaspis Audinet-Serville, Tessaropa Haldeman, Tilloclytus Bates, Tragidion Audinet-Serville, Xylotrechus Chevrolat, Necydalis Linnaeus, Neobellamira Swaine and Hopping, Strangalia Audinet-Serville, Typocerus LeConte, Ataxia Haldeman, Cacostola Fairmaire and Germain, Goes LeConte, Oberea Mulsant, Oncideres Lacordaire, Phaea Newman, and Saperda Fabricius. First larval host records are presented for 11 species: Aneflomorpha luteicornis Linsley, Aneflomorpha parkeri Knull, Elytroleptus ignitus (LeConte), Elytroleptus immaculipennis Knull, Pentanodes dietzi Schaeffer, Phymatodes lengi Joutel, Psyrassa castanea Bates, Purpuricenus opacus (Knull), Stenaspis verticalis arizonicus Casey, Typocerus gloriosus Hopping, and Cacostola lineata Hamilton.
While Cerambycidae are one of the most studied families of beetles, many species have never had their larvae associated with any plant. Some species are associated with various plant species in different areas, and some are polyphagous. The notes presented herein are based on years of fieldwork, museum research, and correspondence with colleagues. This work presents some of the more interesting unpublished records. Furthermore, our research and experience with Cerambycidae has resulted in the authors' doubts about a few of the host plant records published by Linsley and Chemsak (1997).
Material and Methods
The specimens referred to in this paper are in the authors' private collections or occasionally elsewhere as noted. Species were identified using Linsley (1962a, b, 1963, 1964) and Linsley and Chemsak (1972, 1976, 1985, 1995) unless a more recent revision was available for a particular group. Nomenclature follows Tavakilian (2018), an online database, which also provides a comprehensive bibliography for Cerambycidae that is typically updated annually.
Linsley and Chemsak (1997) compiled a list of larval host plants for North American species, However, it is not documented as to the original sources. Subsequently, others contributed additional larval host records (Vlasak and Vlasakova 2002 ; MacRae and Rice 2007; Swift 2008; Vlasak 2014; Maier 2018 and references therein). From the publications that we are aware of, we have determined to the best of our ability which larval host plants, distribution records and observations are new or noteworthy.
Collections acronyms are as follows:
Daniel J. Heffern Collection, Houston, TX
Edward G. Riley Collection, College Station, TX
Joseph A. Green Collection, Findlay, OH
Josef Vlasak Collection, Schwenksville, PA
Ronald L. Alten Collection, Alta Loma, CA
Robert M. Gemmill Collection, Charleston, SC
Texas A&M University Insect Collection, College Station, TX
University of Texas Insect Collection, Austin, TX
Collecting methods for each species are described in the species accounts as appropriate. DJH usually stored infested dead wood outdoors at his residence by placing the wood in large trash barrels with tight-fitting lids, out of direct sunlight, and wetted approximately every month. In cases where the quantity of infested wood was small, the wood was stored indoors in containers. JVand RLA collected both dead and live wood and stored the infested material inside their residences. They also extracted larvae and pupae from pupal cells and placed them in vials until adult transformation as described by Vlasak (2014).
The exact number of specimens collected for some species is not reported as this is simply proportional to the amount of time devoted to collecting that particular species. After an infested location was discovered and the beetle habits were understood, then it only became repetitious to locate additional host plants or perform additional labor to extract larvae or pupae out of a host plant by means of careful cutting or chopping.
Results and Discussion
Mallodon dasystomus dasystomus (Say). New larval host record.
One adult was collected by DJH as it emerged from the trunk of a dying, standing loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L. (Pinaceae) from TX: Harris Co., Addicks Reservoir.
Orthosoma brunneum (Forster). New larval host records.
JV reared this species from moist logs of Juniperus virginiana L. (Cupressaceae) from PA: Montgomery Co. and also froma decaying log of Fraxinus (Oleaceae) from PA: Sullivan Co.
Aethecerinus latecinctus (Horn). New larval host records.
JV found this species in dead twigs of Gossypium thurberi Todaro (Malvaceae) from AZ: Pima Co., Sabino Canyon and in dead stems of Mimosa dysocarpa Benth. (Fabaceae) from Pima Co., Madera Canyon.
Aethecerinus wilsonii (Horn). New larval host records and an adult record.
JV reared this species from the upper parts of stems of small Prunus (Rosaceae) growing in thickets from TX: Wise Co. Stems 1–2 cm in diameter were completely hollowed out, leaving only the thin bark. Specimens were reared also from TX: Bexar Co. from dead branches of Parkinsonia aculeata L. (Fabaceae) and Carya texana Buckley (Juglandaceae) by D.W. Sundberg (DJHC, TAMU). One adult specimen from TX: Parker Co. was collected while feeding on a damaged and oozing stem of Baccharis sp. (Asteraceae) (DJHC).
Aneflomorpha citrana Chemsak. New larval host records.
JV reared A. citrana from girdled stems of living Indigofera sphaerocarpa A. Gray (Fabaceae) (Fig. 1A) from AZ: Cochise Co., Portal and girdled terminal twigs of Rhus aromatica Aiton (Anacardiaceae) from Cochise Co., Cochise Stronghold.
Aneflomorpha larvae typically feed in living terminal branches, stems, or saplings. Infested stems can often be recognized at a distance by having dying or dead leaves as the feeding larva girdles portions of the stem. The mature larva then constructs a pupal cell in the lower part of the stem and fully girdles the stem just above the pupal cell. The upper part typically breaks off, leaving a stub plugged with fibrous frass (Fig. 1). The stubs are considerably more difficult to spot because finding them requires close examination of the host plant.
Aneflomorpha lineare (LeConte). New larval host records.
JV reared specimens from girdled stems of Ceanothus integerrimus Hook. and Arn. (Rhamnaceae) from CA: El Dorado Co. It was also found in girdled living twigs and apparently dead twigs of R. aromatica from CA: Riverside Co., Cactus City; the latter undoubtedly represents an unusual behavior.
Aneflomorpha luteicornis Linsley. First larval host record.
JV collected larvae in living girdled terminal branches of Quercus hypoleucoides A. Camus (Fagaceae) from AZ: Pima Co., Santa Catalina Mt., Marshall Gulch and other oaks in the mountains of southern Arizona. Unlike other Aneflomorpha species mentioned in this paper, A. luteicornis does not seem to create the saddle-like girdle above the pupal cell. Instead, the pupal cell is constructed in the dead portion of the twig, and an exit hole is chewed by the emerging adult on the side of the twig.
Aneflomorpha parkeri Knull. First larval host record.
JV found one dead adult in a girdled, living stemof Calliandra eriophylla Benth. (Fabaceae) from AZ: Pima Co., Tuscon vicinity. Additional plants showed similar attack, but adults were no longer present.
Aneflomorpha subpubescens (LeConte). New larval host records.
JV found larvae feeding in living oak saplings. The larvae were creating conspicuous series of small, regularly spaced holes along the stem through which frass was being expelled, as also recorded by Craighead (1923). In late summer, the infested saplings could be seen at a distance due to their dead leaves. At that time, the larva was working its way downward into the roots where it would overwinter and pupate in the spring. In the New Jersey Pine Barrens, this beetle is common in oak saplings. New hosts include Quercus ilicifolia Wangenh. from NJ: Burlington Co., Wharton State Forest and also Comptonia peregrina (L.) J. M. Coult. (Myricaceae) (Fig. 1D) and Gaylussacia (Ericaceae) (Fig. 1B), both from NJ: Camden Co.
Anelaphus brevidens (Schaeffer). New larval host records.
JV discovered this species in girdled living stems of Ericameria linearifolia (DC.) Urbatsch and Wussow (Asteraceae) fromCA: Riverside Co., Pinyon Flat. The larva girdles the stemin which it fed and pupates below the girdle plugged with a conspicuous fibrous plug (Fig. 1E). The girdles were typically very close (5 cm) to the ground and the pupal cell sometimes extended into the roots. The habits are similar to Anelaphus inflaticollis Chemsak as described by Hovore and Giesbert (1976) and to the aforementioned Aneflomorpha species. Both teneral adults and prepupae were encountered in pupal cells in March. JValso found A. brevidens in a different, larger Ericameria at CA: San Diego Co., Kitchen Creek. Presumably because of the larger size of this plant, pupal cells were high above the ground within the thick stems. Anelaphus brevidens appears to utilize a variety of host plants because it was also found in girdled living C. eriophylla (Fig. 1F) from AZ: Pima Co., Tuscon and in a girdled terminal twig of M. dysocarpa from Pima Co., Madera Co.
Anelaphus piceum (Chemsak). New larval host records.
Larval workings of this species are common around Tucson, Arizona. New larval host records include dead stems of Dodonaea viscosa (L.) Jacq. (Sapindaceae), Eysenhardtia orthocarpa (A. Gray) S.Watson (Fabaceae), and G. thurberi, all from AZ: Pima Co., Sabino Canyon, and M. dysocarpa from Pima Co., Madera Canyon (JVC).
Calloides nobilis mormonus Schaeffer. New larval host record.
This species was found by JV in the lower trunks of weakened or dead Quercus gambelii Nutt. from UT: Grand Co., La Sal Mts. Old exit holes were common in dead trees or dead tissue of living trees. Larval habits are similar to Calloides nobilis nobilis (Harris) described below.
Calloides nobilis nobilis (Harris). New larval host records.
This rarely encountered species was reported from Quercus rubra L., Castanea spp. (Fagaceae), and Fraxinus americana L. (Linsley and Chemsak 1997), and Quercus velutina Lam. (MacRae and Rice 2007). Craighead (1923) gives a description of the biology.
JV found this species to be common in fire-killed stems of Q. ilicifolia and trunks of younger Quercus coccinea Muenchh., Quercus alba L., and Quercus montana Willd. in the hills around Jim Thorpe, Carbon Co., PA, where large areas have undergone controlled burns. Smaller trees were killed by fire, but their wood was only mildly damaged, and the root system remained alive, sprouting new shoots around the base (Fig. 2A). The larvae bore below ground-level, within or adjacent to the living tissue. Frass-filled galleries were found under the bark of roots and extend into the main trunk where the larva constructs a long, empty tunnel, typically towards the center of the trunk (Fig. 2B, C). This long, empty tunnel extends above ground, up to 50 cm, but usually much less than that. At the top, the tunnel turns sharply towards the surface (Fig. 2E, G, H). The larva chews an emergence hole all the way through the bark and seals it with a fibrous plug. The plug is positioned in the tunnel's turn (Fig. 2E, G, H). Consequently, it is more difficult to locate in thicker stems (Fig. 2F–H), but easier to observe in thinner stems (Fig. 2D, E). The emergence hole is oval, usually parallel with the grain but sometimes somewhat sideways (Fig. 2F, top hole).
In winter, mature larvae were found at the bottom of the tunnel, typically around ground level. At that time, the exit hole was already prepared for future emergence, suggesting that it was made in the summer or fall the preceding year. By mid-May, all larvae transformed into pupae. By early June, mostly adults (teneral or fully developed) were found in their pupal cells, with a few having already emerged by then.
Cyrtophorus verrucosus (Olivier). New larval host records.
The larvae of this polyphagous species mine centrally, typically in dead parts of living trees and shrubs or in lower parts of dead stems that are not rotten but still retain some moisture due to contact with the soil. It overwinters as an adult and emerges in early spring. JV observed larvae in the lower parts of dead stems of Shepherdia canadensis (L.) Nutt. (Elaeagnaceae), often going down into the roots, sometimes in the transition zone between living and dead tissue, on the sand dunes in MI: Leelanau Co. They were also found in the lower parts of thick (>2 cm), dead stems of Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae) from PA: Warwick Co., Park. Larvae were also encountered in the transition zone between living and dead wood of Hamamelis virginiana L. (Hamamelidaceae), in dead scar tissue from deer damage on a small living trunk of Celtis occidentalis L. (Cannabaceae), and in a splinter off a fallen Q. rubra, all from PA: Montgomery Co., Green Lane.
Eburia mutica LeConte. New larval host records.
DJH reared this species from dead branches of various trees including Diospyros texana Scheele (Ebenaceae) from TX: Hidalgo Co., Salix nigra Marshall (Salicaceae) from TX: Cameron Co., Sabal Palm Sanctuary, and Morus sp. (Moraceae) from TX: Harris Co.
Elaphidionopsis fasciatipennis Linsley. New larval host record and distributional records.
DJH reared one specimen from a dead branch of Texas mountain laurel, Dermatophyllum secundiflorum (Ortega) Gandhi and Reveal (Fabaceae) from TX: Real Co. The wood was stored almost two years before beetle emergence. DJH reared another specimen from miscellaneous dead, dry branches (probably Senegalia/Vachellia (formerly Acacia) (Fabaceae) or Celtis) from TX: Val Verde Co., along Hwy 90 at the Pecos River. DJH also collected this species at UV light in TX: Brewster Co., Rosillos Mts. (now part of Big Bend National Park). DJH saw numerous specimens taken at lights in TX: Kendall Co. by a late colleague, Steve Hanselmann. The disposition of Hanselmann's personal collection is unknown.
Elytroleptus divisus (LeConte).
Elytroleptus was recently reviewed by Grzymala and Miller (2013), who summarized larval host plant records and discussed the mimetic and predatory behavior of some species.
There are no published rearing records for E. divisus. Adults of this species apparently do not mimic any beetle or insect species. DJH collected them occasionally in southern Texas by beating on blooming Condalia hookeri M. C. Johnst. and Ziziphus obtusifolia (Hook. ex Torr. & A.Gray) A. Gray (both Rhamnaceae). DJH reared one specimen from miscellaneous dead, dry branches (probably Senegalia/Vachellia (formerly Acacia) or Celtis) from TX: Val Verde Co., along Hwy 90 at the Pecos River. Dead branches were cut from the shaded, lower parts of living trees. While this information is indefinite as to the exact larval host, it indicates that the larvae of this species may not require proximity to living plant tissue.
Elytroleptus floridanus (LeConte). New larval host record.
JV reared this species from thin, dead branches of Q. ilicifolia from NJ: Burlington Co., Bass River State Forest.
Elytroleptus ignitus (LeConte). First larval host record.
JV reared this species from a terminal twig of Q. hypoleucoides from AZ: Santa Cruz Co., Upper Madera Canyon. The branch was girdled while living, possibly by a bark beetle (Scolytinae). The terminal dead part was then utilized by E. ignitus.
Elytroleptus immaculipennis Knull. First larval host record.
Robert Androw (personal communication) reared one specimen from a dead, dry Quercus branch, about 2 cm in diameter. The branch was cut from a shaded lower portion of a tree from TX: Jeff Davis Co., Davis Mts.
Enaphalodes atomarius (Drury). New larval host record.
JV found larvae of this species to be common in the base of fire-killed, young Q. alba at NJ:Burlington Co., Wharton State Forest. The habits somewhat resembled those of C. nobilis. The larvae bored into the base of the trunk and into the roots, constructing a pupal cell just above the ground, with a large, oval exit hole packed with fibrous frass. Larvae did not cut the exit hole all the way through the bark, as in the case of C. nobilis; the bark had to be removed to find the plugged holes.Additionally, the long, empty prepupal burrow characteristic of C. nobilis was not present. Emergence holes were parallel with the grain, in contrast to emergence holes from E. atomarius seen on mature Quercus stellataWangenh. from TX:Wise Co. These emergence holes had the longer axis transverse with the grain or slightly sideways and resembled exit holes of large Buprestidae.
Euderces reichei LeConte. New larval host records.
New rearing records of this common, polyphagous species include Malvaviscus arboreus Cav. (Malvaceae) from TX: Cameron Co., Sabal Palm Sanctuary (DJH), Ulmus sp. (Ulmaceae) from TX: Denton Co. (JV), and Prunus sp. (Rosaceae) from TX: Wise Co. (JV).
Heterachthes nobilis LeConte. New larval host record.
DJH reared numerous specimens from Ebenopsis ebano (Berl.) Barneby and Grimes (Fabaceae) from TX: Cameron and Starr Cos.
Lissonotus flavocinctus puncticollis Bates. New larval host record.
Vogt (1949) reported collecting specimens on fresh-cut mesquite and blooming goldenrod, and he reared a specimen from a branch of Acacia girdled by Oncideres. Numerous specimens were reared by DJH from dead Vachellia farnesiana (L.) Wight et Am. from TX: Hidalgo Co., Anzalduas County Park, and one specimen was reared from a dead branch of S. nigra from the same location. E. G. Riley (personal communication) collected this species in a sugar trap from TX: Cameron Co., Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge.
Megacyllene antennata (White). New larval host record.
RLA collected teneral adults, pupae, and prepupal larvae in December in a large broken branch of Celtis reticulata Torr. from AZ: Gila Co., Rye.
Microclytus gazellula (Haldeman).
According to Craighead (1923), this species develops in the outer bark of living Quercus and overwinters as an adult. JV found one adult in a pupal cell in the outer bark of mature, living Q. alba in October from PA: Montgomery Co., Green Lane. Two adults were found in pupal cells from PA: Luzerne Co., along Nescopeck Creek, one in May and one in September. In all cases, the trees were also inhabited by Encyclops caerulea (Say), which is common in eastern Pennsylvania and can be found in more or less all mature Q. alba trees. The galleries of M. gazellula were noticeably smaller and more tightly packed with fine frass compared to those of E. caerulea, which are loosely packed. They seem to prefer mature trees with thick bark, which are rather scarce in the eastern USA due to significant logging in the past.
Neaneflus fuchsii (Wickham). New larval host record.
Larvae were found in living stems and roots of Prunus fasciculata (Torr.) A. Gray from CA: San Bernardino Co., Yucca Valley. Larvae girdled living stems of all sizes (0.5–5.0 cm in diameter) close to the ground (about 10 cm). In early spring, the girdled stems can often be recognized by the presence of dying leaves, and pulling on them may detach them at the girdle. From the girdle, the larva works down into the roots, creating a long tunnel that extends deep into the roots. The tunnel is kept empty, allowing the larva free long-range movement. The exit hole is chewed out just below the girdle, all the way through the bark, and it is plugged with fibrous frass (Fig. 3). The plugged exit holes can be used to recognize stems containing the beetle from older girdled stems that were very common and present in virtually every shrub. In contrast, Swift (2008) reported rearing N. fuchsii from “dead branches” of Lycium cooperi A. Gray (Solanaceae).
Neoclytus magnus Schaeffer. New larval host records.
JV reared this species from living root crowns of Cercocarpus betuloides Nutt. (Rosaceae) from CA: San Diego Co. RLA reared it from living root crowns of Arctostaphylos sp. (Ericaceae) from various places in California, including San Bernardino Co., Wrightwood. Neoclytus resplendens Linsley also develops in living root crowns of Arctostaphylos but tends to have a more northern distribution compared to N. magnus.
Neoclytus tenuiscriptus Fall. New larval host record.
RLA found this species in living Lonicera sp. (Caprifoliaceae), typically at elevations of about 2,000 m in southern California in the San Jacinto, San Bernardino, and San Gabriel Mountains. The larvae bore in thin, living stems, preferring those that are prone and in contact with soil.
Obrium maculatum (Olivier). New larval host records.
DJH reared this common polyphagous species from P. aculeata from TX: Duval Co., M. arboreus from TX: Cameron Co., Sabal Palm Sanctuary, and Condalia sp. from TX: Hidalgo Co., Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge.
Pentanodes dietzi Schaeffer. First larval host records.
DJH reared two specimens from small (0.75–1.5 cm diameter), dead branches of Prosopis glandulosa Torr. (Fabaceae) lying in a roadside ditch from TX: Starr Co., near La Gloria, close to the location where Downie (1987) reported the collection of 25 adult specimens. Another specimen was reared from a small, dead branch of E. ebano collected at an abandoned county park from Starr Co., Falcon Heights.
Phymatodes infuscatus (LeConte). New larval host record.
JV collected larvae in logs of Alnus rubra Bong. (Betulaceae) from CA: San Mateo Co. Larvae pupated in late summer and stayed in the pupal stage until February/March the following year (all under indoor conditions), suggesting that the beetle may overwinter as a pupa.
Phymatodes lengi Joutel. First larval host record and new state records.
DJH reared single specimens of this species from dead vines of wild Vitis sp. (Vitaceae) from the following locations: KS: Woodson Co.; TX: Harris Co.; and TX: Erath Co. Numerous specimens of Phymatodes amoenus (Say) emerged from the same dead vines. A specimen in EGRC was collected from TX: Blanco/Hays county line, Jct Hwy 290 and FM 3232. JV reared numerous specimens from a dead, thick stem of Vitis, along with Clytoleptus albofasciatus (Laporte and Gory) from PA: Chester Co. Phymatodes lengi apparently has habits similar to P. amoenus, but they emerged about one month later than P. amoenus. There are still questions regarding the biology of P. lengi. JV found small cerambycid larvae in the outer bark of thick, living Vitis but failed to rear any adult beetles from them. It is possible that P. lengi seeks out the thick outer bark of mature vines, perhaps utilizing both living and dead plants. This could explain why this species is much less common than the similarly colored P. amoenus. It is also possible that specimens of P. lengi have been misidentified in collections. The thick bark of living Vitis is also inhabited by the buprestid beetle Anthaxia (Haplanthaxia) dichroa Bıacute;lý.
Piezocera serraticollis Linell. New larval host records.
A specimen was reared from a branch of V. farnesiana that had been girdled by Oncideres pustulatus LeConte from TX: Cameron Co., Palmito Hill along Hwy 4 (JAGC). DJH reared a specimen from a small, dead branch of Fraxinus berlandierana DC. from TX: Hidalgo Co., Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge. Generally, this species is uncommon. However, on one occasion, DJH collected numerous specimens by beating the foliage of blooming P. aculeata from Cameron Co., Sabal Palm Sanctuary.
Pilostenaspis lateralis (LeConte).
Since the original description, the only new data for this species were published by Eya (2015). Additional notes and clarifications are given concerning the specimens he reported upon. The first specimen known to have been collected since its description in 1884 was collected from TX: Pecos Co., 28 mi. SW Fort Stockton, 13-IV-1997, E. G. Riley (collected in flight) (EGRC). Subsequently, a larva found in a stem of Quercus mohriana Buckley (Mohr's oak is a dwarf species) from the same locality as Riley's specimen was collected on 27-IV-1997 by DJH and transformed into an adult in early October of that year. The larva collected in April was already nearly full-size and finished development, indoors, in a stem 1 cm in diameter and 10 cm in length. Pilostenaspis lateralis overwinters as an adult, as numerous specimens were collected at the Pecos Co. site in the winter of 2017–2018 by numerous collectors. The records given by Eya (2015) are all from the same locality and are all for adults removed from their pupal cells from November 1998 through March 1998. The September 1997 records of specimens collected by J. Beierl, published by Eya (2015), are incorrect and should read 28 November 1997 (R. Cunningham, personal communication, based on a ledger belonging to the late J. Beierl). Other new Texas records for this species are Bandera Co., Lost Maples State Natural Area, 13/27-III-1999, R. Wharton, Malaise trap (TAMU) and Brown Co., Camp Bowie, 6.6 km SE Brownwood, 10-III-2008, J. C. Abbott, Malaise trap (UTIC).
Psyrassa castanea Bates. First larval host record.
This species was formerly known as Psyrassa texana Schaeffer before being synonymized by Toledo (2006). DJH reared one specimen from dead Leucaena pulverulenta (Schltdl.) Benth. (Fabaceae) from TX: Cameron Co., Sabal Palm Sanctuary. Linsley and Chemsak (1997) list Celtis texana Scheele, Fraxinus, and L. pulverulenta as host plants, whereas Hovore et al. (1987) did not list any larval host plants in their comprehensive paper on Cerambycidae from southern Texas. Apparently, Linsley and Chemsak (1997) listed records of plants from which P. castanea was beaten from as cited in Hovore et al. (1987). To the best of our knowledge, our specimen from L. pulverulenta is the first confirmed rearing record of this species. DJH collected numerous specimens at lights and by beating flowering Condalia in early June at Cameron Co., Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge.
Purpuricenus opacus (Knull). First larval host record and new state record.
Until the 1980s, this species was known from only a few specimens. Numerous specimens were collected after 1990 from TX: Jeff Davis Co., Davis Mts. by D. G. Marqua in fermenting sugar traps (MacRae 2000). The late Dave Marqua collected all of his specimens near his residence located in Limpia Canyon at about 1,800 m elevation. Two specimens were reared by R. M. Gemmill (RMGC) fromNM: Eddy Co., Lincoln National Forest, 1 mi. S Hwy 137 on Klondike Rd. Gemmill (personal communication) collected dead/dying oak (Quercus) branches on 29-III-1998, and adults emerged (indoors) in June and August 1998. This location is close to the Texas/New Mexico border, suggesting that this species may occur farther northwest into the Sacramento Mountains of New Mexico.
Rosalia funebris Motschulsky. New larval host record.
RLA reared this species from the fire-killed bases of Fremontodendron californicum Coville (Malvaceae) from CA: San Bernardino Co., Wrightwood.
Semanotus juniperi (Fisher). New larval host record.
DJH collected four adults from TX: Real Co., 11 mi.NWLeakey, III-19-1989 as they were resting on the trunk of living Juniperus ashei J. Buchholz. The emergence holes were about 1–2 m above ground and visible from the nearby road. In 1998, on a private ranch near Concan, Uvalde Co., a rancher (J. S. Graves, Jr.) showed DJH an area where hundreds of mature J. ashei had been severely attacked by this beetle, resulting in the death or weakening of many trees. Upwards of 20 or more emergence holes per trunk were counted on many trees up to heights of several meters. The rancher had forwarded one of the beetles he collected during emergence to E. G. Riley (TAMU) for identification.
Stenaspis verticalis arizonicus Casey. First larval host record.
RLA reared this species from the root crowns of living Baccharis sarothroides A. Gray from various places in Arizona, including Pima Co., Madera Canyon and Maricopa Co., Sunflower. Occasionally, the presence of feeding larvae was revealed by expelled frass around the base, but often no signs of infestation were apparent since the larvae can bore deep in the roots.
Tessaropa tenuipes (Haldeman). New larval host records.
Craighead (1923) states that pupation and transformation to adult occur in late summer or fall, but in Pennsylvania, JV has always seen it as a pupa throughout late fall and winter, as also reported by Fisher and Kirk (1912). New larval host plants include Acer saccharum Marshall (Sapindaceae), Carpinus caroliniana Walter (Betulaceae), Corylus americana Walter (Betulaceae), and Prunus serotina Ehrh. from Montgomery Co., Green Lane and Quercus palustris Münchh., Montgomery Co., Valley Forge Park (JVC). Tessaropa tenuipes is most frequently found in thin terminal portions of broken branches still attached to the tree.
Tilloclytus geminatus (Haldeman). New larval host records.
JV reared this species from Quercus falcata Michx. fromNJ: Burlington Co., Tilia sp. (Malvaceae) from PA: Chester Co., and Ulmus sp. from both TX: Denton Co. and PA: Montgomery Co.
Tragidion gracilipes Linsley. New larval host record.
JVreared this species from an old, fire-killed stem (about 5 cm in diameter) of a scrub oak (Quercus) from CA: San Diego Co., Mt. Laguna.
Xylotrechus quadrimaculatus (Haldeman). New larval host records.
Larvae of this species girdle living branches of various hardwoods, mainly Betula spp. (Betulaceae) and Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. (Fagaceae) (Craighead 1923). Branches that break off and fall onto the ground retain leaves and can be readily seen on the forest floor. Infested branches can be collected during summer and throughout winter. The beetles emerge the following spring.
In the Poconos region of eastern Pennsylvania, JV frequently found larvae in Betula lenta L. and Betula alleghaniensis Britton. JValso reared it from additional new host plants: Betula papyrifera Marshall and Alnus incana (L.) Moench from NY: Franklin Co., Tupper Lake; Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch (Betulaceae) from NY: Oswego Co., Pulaski; and Corylus cornuta Marshall and C. americana from PA: Luzerne Co., Nescopeck Creek.
Necydalis mellita (Say). New larval host records.
Craighead (1923) described this species as being a “heartwood feeder in the solid dead wood of Quercus and Castanea” and gives Q. alba as the only specific host plant. In agreement with Craighead's description, but somewhat to our surprise, JV found it abundantly in dry, hard, many-years dead, fallen trunks of oaks (Fig. 4A). The sapwood had rotted away years before, and the trunks appeared too old to be inhabited by cerambycid larvae. The larvae bore deep (about 5 cm or more) into the wood. Before pupation, the larva creates a long exit tunnel heading perpendicularly to the surface. The tunnel is ellipsoidal in cross section (Fig. 4B), which distinguishes it from circular tunnels by other beetles often found in these old logs. The tunnel ends just below the surface, and the adult then gnaws a more circular but usually still slightly oval emergence hole (Fig. 4D). Removing 1–2mmof the wood with a chisel revealed these exit tunnels, which are empty and head deep into the center, where they are plugged with fine, granular frass. The pupal cell is constructed either in lower parts of this straight tunnel or, less frequently, after the tunnel turns parallel with the grain. Interestingly, the pupae were invariably facing towards the center of the trunk (Fig. 4C), suggesting that the beetle must turn around in the fairly narrow pupal cell in order to exit.
JV also found Necydalis mellita in thick, dead lateral branches on living Q. rubra and Q. velutina from PA: Montgomery Co., Green Lane. These hard and seemingly too old remnants of thick oak branches were also utilized by Eburia quadrigeminata (Say).
Neobellamira delicata delicata (LeConte). New larval host record.
RLA found larvae in dead wood adjacent to living tissue of F. californicum from CA: San Bernardino Co., Wrightwood.
Strangalia bicolor (Swederus). New larval host record.
Craighead (1923) stated that “this species has been reared from dead Acer and Quercus”. JV found numerous specimens in the outer bark of living Q. velutina from PA: Chester Co., Warwick County Park. The bark on the living tree seemed infested with a fungus, making it whitish and rather soft, despite the fact that the tree appeared in good health and remained as such for several years. Perhaps this is the reason why it was utilized by S. bicolor, and it likely represents an unusual behavior for the species. In agreement with Craighead's description, JV also found it in a dead and decaying trunk of Q. velutina.
Strangalia virilis LeConte. New larval host record.
DJH observed a female ovipositing on a solid, dead branch (about 7–10 cm diameter) about 1.5 m above ground on a large, living water oak, Quercus nigra L. from TX: Harris Co., Addicks Reservoir area. The branch was collected afterwards, and two specimens emerged the following year. Strangalia virilis is usually encountered along the margin of oak woods and meadow habitat where it frequents various flowers, sometimes being attracted to fermenting bait.
Typocerus gloriosus Hopping. First larval host record.
This species occurs in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah (Linsley and Chemsak 1976). However, it was known from very few specimens until recently. RLA reared specimens from Juniperus osteosperma (Torr.) Little from UT: Kane Co., near Coral Pink Sand Dunes and Hatch. The larvae develop in dead parts, such as scars or broken branches, of living trees. The frequency of exit holes on junipers in the area suggests that it is not rare at that location. The habits are similar to those of Leptura anthracina LeConte, which develops in exposed wood of living Abies sp. (Pinaceae) (RLA, personal observation).
Ataxia tibialis Schaeffer.
Hovore et al. (1987) stated that they knew of just seven specimens (all TX: Cameron Co., Sabal Palm Sanctuary) of this species and some had been collected from dead Zanthoxylum sp. (Rutaceae). Hovore et al. (1987) did not list Zanthoxylum as a larval host as they specifically listed “Larval Hosts” for other species in their monograph. Chemsak and Linsley (1997) apparently erred in their interpretation of information presented in Hovore et al. (1987). Indeed, Garcia et al. (2014) recorded “en Capsicum annum” for a specimen(s) from Mexico: Tamaulipas, Victoria; unfortunately, this author did not respond to our inquiry for more details. Wild Capsicum (Solanaceae) does occur in the Sabal Palm Sanctuary. DJH, B. Raber, and E. G. Riley collected extensively in the Sabal Palm Sanctuary and other preserves in southern Texas during 2008–2010 and captured only two additional specimens (one male and one female) in a UV light trap in the Sanctuary.
Cacostola lineata Hamilton. First larval host record.
DJH reared one specimen from a dead branch of Celtis fromTX: Cameron Co., Sabal PalmSanctuary. Linsley and Chemsak (1997) list Baccharis, Celtis, Condalia, Pithecellobium flexicaule Benth. (Fabaceae), and Salix as host plants, whereas Hovore et al. (1987) did not list any larval host plants. Apparently, Linsley and Chemsak (1997) listed records of plants from which adult C. lineata were beaten from as reported by Hovore et al. (1987). Some or all of these plants listed by Linsley and Chemsak (1997) may serve as larval hosts, but to the best of our knowledge, our specimen from Celtis is the only confirmed rearing record of this species.
Goes novus Fall. New larval host record.
All species of Goes LeConte are known or presumed to feed in living hardwoods, predominantly oaks (Solomon 1995). Goes novus larvae, pupae, and adults were recorded as being collected in or on unspecified species of oak (Hovore 1983). Numerous specimens were taken at light by the late Dave Marqua from TX: Jeff Davis Co., Limpia Canyon, 1,830 m[6,000 ft], especially in late June and early July (DJHC and TAMU). Several pupae of this species were collected by DJH on IV-27-1997 in the root crowns of Q. mohriana from TX: Pecos Co., 28 mi. S of Fort Stockton. Only one pupa survived transformation into an adult about one month later. The type locality of G. novus is Alpine, TX. Linsley and Chemsak (1985) cite the species' geographic range as “West Texas”. Single specimens from Kimble and Dewitt Cos. (DJHC) appear to be conspecific, thus indicating that this species occurs over a very wide area of central and western Texas.
Oberea ulmicola Chittenden. New larval host record.
This species was described by Chittenden (in Webster 1904) from Decatur, IL, who speculated, based on experimental data, that it is rather selective for Ulmus. It girdles terminal living twigs and constructs a pupal cell plugged with fibrous frass below a saddle-like girdle. JV reared one individual from a girdled sapling of Celtis laevigata Willd. from TX: Denton Co., Elm Fork Trinity River. Individuals were also reared from Ulmus from the same locality.
Oncideres quercus Skinner. New larval host records.
Females girdle terminal oak branches (about 1 cm in diameter), but, to our knowledge, no specific host plant has been reported. JV reared it from girdled branches of Q. hypoleucoides and Quercus rugosa Née collected from AZ: Santa Cruz Co., Upper Madera Canyon. Girdled and usually detached twigs with leaves still attached are conspicuous in the summer and the fall in the mountains in southern Arizona. At that time, larval feeding has just begun, but the twigs can be collected and the beetles reared with emergence occurring the following year.
Phaea canescens (LeConte).
Linsley and Chemsak (1995, 1997 ) erroneously list Alnus as a host plant. Chemsak (1999), in his revision of the genus Phaea Newman, correctly lists Ipomoea leptophylla Torr. (Convolvulaceae) as a host plant. Adults of P. canescens have been collected in numbers in late May to early June on fresh shoots of I. leptophylla from the High Plains area of northern Texas, Oklahoma Panhandle, northeastern New Mexico, southwestern Kansas, and eastern Colorado (TAMU, EGRC, and DJHC). It is closely related to its eastern counterpart, Phaea monostigma (Haldeman), that breeds in Ipomoea pandurata (L.) G. Mey.
Saperda hornii Joutel. New larval host record.
This species develops in living Salix. Linsley and Chemsak (1997) gave Salix lasiolepsis Benth. as the only specific host plant. JV found it in living Salix scouleriana Barratt ex Hook. from CA: El Dorado Co., Lake Tahoe. Frass extruded by the feeding larvae was conspicuous on the trees. Pupation occurs deep in the wood. The exit tunnel prepared by the larva does not penetrate the bark, thereby leaving a thin layer to be cut by the emerging adult, which leaves a circular emergence hole.
The authors wish to acknowledge the valuable information provided by Richard Cunningham (Chino, CA), Joseph Green (Findlay, OH), Edward Riley (College Station, TX), Mike Quinn (Austin, TX), Robert Gemmill (Charleston, SC), Dan Sundberg (San Antonio, TX), and Robert Androw (Pittsburgh, PA). We wish to thank Robert Androw for identification of A. parkeri and providing old distribution records for C. nobilis nobilis, which helped JV to locate this beetle in Pennsylvania. We want to thank Douglas Ripley, Arizona Native Plant Society, for help with determination of some southern Arizona plants. The first author wishes to thank Jimmy Paz, former manager of the Sabal Palm Sanctuary, and the US Fish andWildlife Service for permission to collect in refuges under their control. Lastly, many thanks to Ted MacRae for determination of A. dichroa.
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