I investigated survival, recruitment, and dispersal in the Hawai'i 'Elepaio (Chasiempis sandwichensis sandwichensis), a territorial, nonmigratory monarch flycatcher endemic to the island of Hawai'i. I color-banded and resighted 137 individuals from 1991–2000 and collected longevity data until 2008. The oldest known 'Elepaio was at least 17 years and 10 months old. I used multistate models to examine variation in survival and recruitment, with different states for territory holders and floaters. I classified birds into eight age-sex groups, with individual body size and annual reproduction as covariates. Territory holders of all ages had higher survival than floaters. Survival of territory holders was higher in years with low reproduction and was consistently higher in males (0.87 ± 0.02) than in females (0.81 ± 0.03) due to costs of reproduction. Larger body size was associated with higher survival in males but not in females because males engage in more intense physical competition. Survival and recruitment of floaters were influenced by different factors. Survival of floaters was not related to sex or size and may depend on foraging proficiency and avoiding aggression from dominant adults. Older and larger floaters were more likely to recruit. Natal dispersal distances were short but were longer in males (539 ± 68 m) than in females (357 ± 82 m), and this difference was due to higher survival of adult males. Accurate estimates of survival and recruitment are crucial for understanding population dynamics and designing effective conservation strategies.
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Vol. 110 • No. 2