Translator Disclaimer
1 November 2011 Estimating Western Scrub-Jay Density in California by Multiple-Covariate Distance Sampling
Scott P. Crosbie, Levi E. Souza, Holly B. Ernest
Author Affiliations +

Using multiple-covariate distance sampling with seasonal point transects, we surveyed for the Western Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma californica californica group) over a substantial portion of its range in California . Our goals were to produce seasonal and habitat-specific estimates of the scrub-jay's regional density and abundance in 2008 and to demonstrate how the concurrent collection and analysis of covariate data may be useful in improving estimates of bird density. Density and abundance estimates implied a significant 38% increase over 2008, from a low of 24 jays km-2 (2.3 × 106 jays) in February to a high of 78 jays km-2 (7.5 × 106 jays) in November. Density was greatest in agricultural habitats (98 jays km-2) and least in rural habitats (38 jays km-2). Averaged over the study, abundance was greatest in agricultural habitats (2.6 × 106 jays) and least in urban habitats (3.6 ×105 jays). Inclusion of covariates such as habitat type, observer, weather, and time of day often increased the precision of density estimates, and it significantly improved model results in one case. As detailed in this study, the techniques of multiple-covariate distance sampling may have application as effective and noninvasive methods for obtaining more precise estimates of bird density and monitoring the density and abundance of species across broad habitats.

© 2011 by The Cooper Ornithological Society. All rights reserved. Please direct all requests for permission to photocopy or reproduce article content through the University of California Press's Rights and Permissions website,
Scott P. Crosbie, Levi E. Souza, and Holly B. Ernest "Estimating Western Scrub-Jay Density in California by Multiple-Covariate Distance Sampling," The Condor 113(4), 843-852, (1 November 2011).
Received: 11 August 2009; Accepted: 20 May 2011; Published: 1 November 2011

Aphelocoma californica
distance sampling
point transect
western scrub-jay
Get copyright permission
Back to Top