The morphology of the respiratory system of basal araneomorph spiders, the Haplogynae and of Entelegynae with female haplogyne genitalia, is reviewed. The homology of cuticular respiratory structures is discussed in light of evidence from abdominal muscles and ontogeny. Ten morphological characters (13 transformations) were coded, mainly from the posterior pulmonary (or tracheal) segment, and other 7 non-respiratory characters here added. The new data were combined with those of a previously published analysis, resulting in a data matrix of 82 characters scored for 44 terminals. The evolution of the tracheal system is traced through the phylogeny of basal spiders and the Haplogynae, and new synapomorphies are provided. Elongate 3rd abdominal entapophyses are a synapomorphy of Araneomorphae. True median tracheae are a synapomorphy of Entelegynae (convergently with Austrochilinae), as is the extreme posterior displacement and narrowing of the tracheal spiracle. Tetrablemmidae, Pholcidae, Diguetidae and Plectreuridae are united by the absence of tracheae; and these taxa are united with Scytodidae, Sicariidae and Drymusidae by the fusion of 3rd entapophyses.
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