We describe the reproductive biology of seven theraphosid species from Uruguay. Species under study include the Ischnocolinae Oligoxystre argentinense and the Theraphosinae Acanthoscurria suina, Eupalaestrus weijenberghi, Grammostola iheringi, G. mollicoma, Homoeomma uruguayense and Plesiopelma longisternale. Sexual activity periods were estimated from the occurrence of walking adult males. Sperm induction was described from laboratory studies. Courtship and mating were also described from both field and laboratory observations. Oviposition and egg sac care were studied in the field and laboratory. Two complete cycles including female molting and copulation, egg sac construction and emergence of juveniles were reported for the first time in E. weijenberghi and O. argentinense. The life span of adults was studied and the whole life span was estimated up to 30 years in female G. mollicoma, which seems to be a record for spiders. A comprehensive review of literature on theraphosid reproductive biology was undertaken. In the discussion, we consider the lengthy and costly sperm induction, the widespread display by body vibrations of courting males, multiple mating strategies of both sexes and the absence of sexual cannibalism.
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