Brazil possesses the richest fauna of Salticidae in the world, including 560 species; however, no representative of the Brazilian fauna has been cytogenetically analyzed up to now. It has been demonstrated that karyotype data are a useful source for discussions on the phylogeny and chromosome differentiation of some salticid lineages. In this work, the first chromosome study of salticid species from Brazil is presented, with the addition of five genera to the 38 previously investigated worldwide. The analysis of mitotic and/or meiotic cells revealed 2n♂ = 28, X1X20 in Asaracus sp., Coryphasia sp., Chira sp., Frigga quintensis (Tullgren, 1905), and Lyssomanes pauper Mello-Leitão, 1945. This karyotype constitution is the most common for Salticidae, occurring in species of distinct clades. The diploid number 2n♀ = 28 observed in Hasarius adansoni (Audouin, 1826) is unexpected, differing in one autosomal pair from the karyotype previously registered for males of the same species. The cytogenetic information reported here reinforces the wide occurence of 2n♂ = 28, X1X20 within Salticidae, including species belonging to different clades and biogeographical regions. This karyotype is a shared character of Salticidae Philodromidae, found exclusively in these families within Dionycha, suggesting its sister relationship already proposed in the literature.
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Vol. 44 • No. 2