In order to investigate geographic population structure and genetic diversity in the soybean pod borer Leguminivora glycinivorella, partial sequences of the mitochondrial DNA of 337 individuals from northeastern China were sequenced and analyzed. 16 haplotypes were found in CO II, and 14 haplotypes were defined in Cytb, including one haplotype shared by ten populations in each gene. L. glycinivorella populations are characterized by medium/low haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity. The Tajima's D and Fu's Fs test indicated that there might not have been a recent population expansion. All pairwise gene flow Nm parameters were greater than one in the 10 populations. Molecular variance analysis (AMOVA) demonstrated that the observed genetic differentiation occurs primarily within populations, rather than among populations, no large-scale regional differences are detected. Genetic distance is not significantly correlated with geographical distance between populations. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees and a haplotype network showed that the haplotypes are distributed in different clades and no obvious geographical structure has been formed. The result suggested that geographic population structure among L. glycinivorella are not affected by geographic isolation and recent dispersal (some gene flow) resulting in no significant genetic differentiation occurred among populations.
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