Five species of aquatic crambid moths of the genus Petrophila were discovered in Oak Creek, Arizona. The biology and immatures stages of P. avernalis, P. longipennis, P. anna, and P. cornvillia are described for the first time. The biology of the fifth species, P. jaliscalis, had been previously described. Long-term studies identified environmental factors that influence their distribution and abundance. Species richness is related to complexity of the aquatic habitat while abundance is related to environmental parameters and behavior. The negative impact of one natural and one human-made disruption to the aquatic environments were monitored and Petrophila larvae were found to be excellent indicators of both the disruption and subsequent recovery of the habitat.
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