The species chosen in this study were Aldama filifolia (Sch. Bip. ex Baker) E.E.Schill. & Panero, A. linearifolia (Chodat) E.E.Schill. & Panero, and A. trichophylla (Dusén) Magenta, which are morphologically very similar. Their representatives are perennial, cespitose herbs with an odoriferous resin and a xylopodium with tuberous adventitious roots. These species are from Cerrado areas and present seasonality of development. The aim of the present study was to provide anatomical features of the underground system of the aforementioned species and try to explain certain aspects of their environmental adaptation. Some of the structural characteristics observed in the Aldama species are new for the Asteraceae family, such as a secondary protective tissue similar to storied cork, the variation of cambial activity in A. filifolia, and the tuberisation process by division of the medullary parenchyma cells. The essential oil composition of the xylopodia and roots showed some differences among the species and allowed the identification of some compounds with biological properties. The underground system, which has gemmiferous ability and tuberised roots able to store inulin-type fructans, is related to the seasonality of growth and the adaptation of such plants to the environmental conditions of their habitat.