We present the results of a faunal study of cerambycids from San Javier, Sonora, a locality in México with tropical dry forest. The study was carried out between November, 2003 and October, 2004. The collections were carried out during five days of every month and the collection methods included light trapping, Malaise trapping and direct collecting. Vegetational phenology was related to seasonal variations in species richness by using MODIS-NDVI data. A total of 82 species, 62 genera, 27 tribes and 3 subfamilies were recorded. The subfamily with the greatest number of species was Cerambycinae with 52, followed by Lamiinae with 27, and Prioninae with three. The tribes with the largest number of genera and species were Elaphidiini with 12 and 20, Trachyderini with 9 and 9 and Acanthocinini with eight and 12. The genera with the most species were Anelaphus Linsley with four and Anopliomorpha Linsley, Neocompsa Martins and Lepturges Bates with three. The richness value using the non-parametric estimator ICE was 121 species. The species abundance pattern showed few very abundant species and many with few individuals. The diversity value calculated with the Shannon Index over the entire year was 3.35. Two main patterns are revealed in the temporal relationship between vegetation phenology and species richness: (1) a direct relationship occurring at the end of the dry season and during the first half of the greening up of vegetation, and (2) an inverse relationship which starts in the second half of the dry season. The fauna was more similar to the fauna of Chamela, Jalisco than to Sierra de Huautla, Morelos, San Buenaventura, Jalisco or El Aguacero, Chiapas and consists of 18% species endemic to Mexico.
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