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30 June 2020 The seasonal occupancy of overwintering monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus plexippus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), at four California winter groves reflects grove conditions for winter aggregations, survival, and contribution to the next generation of butterflies
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Abstract

When viewed over a period of years, the frequency and type of seasonal occupancy of overwintering monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus plexippus (Linnaeus, 1758), at California winter groves are good indicators of whether grove conditions are being maintained, declining, or recovering. The contribution of a winter grove to the next generation of butterflies depends on the stability of grove conditions for winter aggregations. Knowing the trend of grove conditions allows proactive management of winter groves for overwintering butterflies.

Kingston L. H. Leong, Robert Dees, Holly Sletteland, Josh Heptig, Judy Richards, and Judy Reina "The seasonal occupancy of overwintering monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus plexippus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), at four California winter groves reflects grove conditions for winter aggregations, survival, and contribution to the next generation of butterflies," The Pan-Pacific Entomologist 96(2), 41-58, (30 June 2020). https://doi.org/10.3956/2020-96.2.41
Received: 4 November 2019; Accepted: 12 February 2020; Published: 30 June 2020
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