Female song rarely has been examined in suboscines. This paper describes the context and structure of female Least Flycatcher (Empidonax minimus) songs. During two years, we observed 4 of 19 females singing, and although singing occurred infrequently, it occurred predominantly at the nest during incubation and brooding. Analysis of five songs from one female showed that the mean of this female's songs fell below the distribution of male songs for the internote interval, the minimum and maximum frequency, the frequency range, and the frequency at maximum amplitude of the first note of the two-note song. These results differ from other studies showing no sex differences in song structure of tyrannid flycatchers, suggesting further analyses of female song are warranted.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.