We studied building characteristics and landscape context to predict risk of migratory birds being killed by colliding with sheet glass on Manhattan Island, New York City, New York, USA. Trained volunteers monitored 73 discrete building facades daily from the Upper East Side to the southern tip of the Island during autumn 2006 and spring 2007 bird migratory periods using a consistent and scientifically valid search protocol. We recorded 475 bird strikes in autumn 2006 and 74 in spring 2007 of which 82 and 85%, respectively, were fatal. Most building and context variables exerted moderate influence on risk of death by colliding with glass. We recommend a suite of building characteristics that building designers can use to reduce risk of collisions by minimizing the proportion of glass to other building materials in new construction. We suggest that reduction of reflective panes may offer increased protection for birds. Several context variables can reduce risk of death at glass by reducing ground cover, including changes in height of vegetation, and eliminating shrubs and trees from areas in front of buildings. We estimated 1.3 bird fatalities per ha per year; this rate extrapolates to ∼34 million annual glass victims in urban areas of North America north of Mexico during the fall and spring migratory periods. Clear and reflective sheet glass poses a universal hazard for birds, specifically for passage migrants in New York City, but also representative and comparable to growing urban areas worldwide.
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Vol. 121 • No. 1