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1 March 2012 Reproductive Life History Traits of the Yellowish Pipit (Anthus lutescens)
Maikon S. Freitas, Mercival R. Francisco
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We describe reproductive traits of the Yellowish Pipit (Anthus lutescens) in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. We found 32 active nests during three breeding seasons (2008–2010). Domed nests were built exclusively on the ground where the grass was sufficiently tall to conceal them. Clutch initiation across years occurred from July to October and average ± SD clutch size was 3.05 ± 0.4 eggs or young. Yellowish Pipits were predominantly single-brooded. Eggs were pale white with brown spots and blotches that could be more concentrated at the larger end or homogeneously distributed over the entire surface. Eggs were 18.2 ± 0.8 mm in length, 13.7 ± 0.3 mm in width, and weighed 1.7 ± 0.12 g. Incubation and nestling periods lasted 13.03 ± 0.2 and 14.5 ± 1.0 days, respectively. Mean time incubating/hr was 38 ± 7.1 min, and incubation recesses averaged 9.4 ± 4 min. Young were provisioned on average 13.3 ± 7.9 times/hr, by both males and females. Estimated overall nesting success using a null model of constant nest survival rates was 87% (95% CI, 56–97%). Model selection analyses indicated survival was negatively correlated to nest age and time within the breeding season. Comparisons of Yellowish Pipit life history traits with northern temperate congeners provided support for the premises that clutch sizes are smaller and young development is slower in the tropics. The hypothesis that annual fecundity can be similar across latitudes due to a negative correlation between clutch size and number of renesting attempts was not supported. Our data contradicted the commonly claimed, but poorly tested hypothesis, that smaller clutch sizes in the tropics can be explained by a longer breeding season that permit more opportunities to renest within the same breeding season.

Maikon S. Freitas and Mercival R. Francisco "Reproductive Life History Traits of the Yellowish Pipit (Anthus lutescens)," The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 124(1), 119-126, (1 March 2012).
Received: 14 February 2011; Accepted: 15 August 2011; Published: 1 March 2012

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