The Cylindrical Papershell (Anodontoides ferussacianus) is a fast-growing, short-lived freshwater mussel that occurs throughout the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada but appears to be declining in portions of its range. Its distribution in Kansas, once encompassing most of the Kansas and Missouri river basins, is now limited to the upper Saline and Smoky Hill rivers in the west-central portion of the state. We qualitatively surveyed freshwater mussels at 19 sites on both the Saline and Smoky Hill rivers, with emphasis on assessing the status of A. ferussacianus. We collected 28 live mussels in the Saline River, including eight A. ferussacianus, and 503 live mussels in the Smoky Hill River, including 12 A. ferussacianus. We also estimated mussel density at five sites with the highest relative abundances of A. ferussacianus. Densities of A. ferussacianus ranged from 0.01 to 0.03 individuals per m2. Most A. ferussacianus were collected in run habitats near riffles, beaver dams, and lowhead dams. In addition to A. ferussacianus, we collected three other mussel species in the Saline River, and six other species in the Smoky Hill River. Total mussel density ranged from 0.08 to 0.13 individuals per m2 at sites in the Saline River, and 0.48 to 2.00 individuals per m2 at sites in the Smoky Hill River.
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