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1 November 2009 A practical method for measuring horizontal cover
Andrés Ordiz, Ole-Gunnar Støen, Lisa G. Langebro, Sven Brunberg, Jon E. Swenson
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We propose a new cover cylinder as a useful tool for a single observer to measure horizontal cover in the field. We compared it with 4 other methods for measuring horizontal cover at brown bear (Ursus arctos) beds, with all measurements taken 10 m from beds in the 4 cardinal directions. We also compared cylinder cover values from a fixed distance with an index of cover, namely a sighting distance, D, the minimum distance at which the cylinder could no longer be seen; we also compared measurements from a random direction and from the 4 cardinal directions. The cylinder provided measurements comparable to other devices, including a cardboard profile of a bedded bear, and was the most practical to use in the field. Measuring D was scarcely more time consuming than measuring cover from the fixed 10-m distance, and D is better for statistical analysis. We recommend the cylinder, and using the index of cover, D, taken from the 4 cardinal directions, when assessing horizontal cover for bears or other medium and large terrestrial vertebrates.

Andrés Ordiz, Ole-Gunnar Støen, Lisa G. Langebro, Sven Brunberg, and Jon E. Swenson "A practical method for measuring horizontal cover," Ursus 20(2), 109-113, (1 November 2009).
Received: 15 December 2008; Accepted: 1 April 2009; Published: 1 November 2009
cover cylinder
horizontal cover
sighting distance
Ursus arctos
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