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1 January 2017 Marking behavior of Andean bears in an Ecuadorian cloud forest: a pilot study
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Very little is known about marking behavior of the endangered Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus). Here, we present a first detailed description of Andean bear marking behavior obtained using camera traps. From November 2012 to April 2013, we inspected 16 bear trails in the Napo province of eastern Ecuador, and installed camera traps (n = 3) at marking sites to document their marking behavior. We obtained 22 video recordings of Andean bears, all of which were captured during daytime. Almost all recordings (n = 18) contained behavior associated with marking. Tree-rubbing was the main behavioral display at marking sites, and consisted of 4 common activities: (1) tree-sniffing, (2) rubbing the neck and/or shoulders, (3) rubbing the flanks, and (4) rubbing the back. Bears also claw-marked and urinated while rubbing trees. We only observed scent-marking from males. Consistent with other bear species, we suggest that Andean bears communicate intra-specifically through their marking behavior.

© 2017 International Association for Bear Research and Management
Eva Filipczyková, Ignas M.A. Heitkönig, Armando Castellanos, Wouter Hantson, and Sam M.J.G. Steyaert "Marking behavior of Andean bears in an Ecuadorian cloud forest: a pilot study," Ursus 27(2), 122-128, (1 January 2017).
Received: 16 January 2016; Accepted: 1 September 2016; Published: 1 January 2017

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