The Red-necked Grebe (Podiceps grisegena) is a species in which breeding pairs use both overt aggression and ritualistic behavior to defend territories for breeding and feeding. However in some areas, they also breed in colonial groups. The behavior of grebes breeding on a single large lake (2,537 ha), where some breed solitarily and others breed in colonies, was examined. Specifically, I compared the frequency and spatial distribution of behavioral interactions between pairs that had dispersed nests with those breeding in close proximity. Grebes breeding in a colony engaged in more overt behavioral interactions and spent more time conducting platform behavior during pre-nesting than their solitary counterparts. In addition, the locations of ritualized and overt interactions from the nest were greater for solitary breeders. However, grebes breeding in the colony tolerated conspecifics at closer distances which, suggests that those breeding in higher aggregations may expend more energy when dealing with conspecifics.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 26 • No. 1