Carfentrazone-ethyl absorption, translocation, and metabolism was determined in Glycine max, Zea mays, and Abutilon theophrasti. Glycine max absorbed greater than 90% of applied carfentrazone-ethyl within 2 h after treatment (HAT) when nonionic surfactant (NIS) or crop oil concentrate (COC) were included in the treatment solution. The addition of 28% urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) did not improve carfentrazone-ethyl absorption in G. max, but in Z. mays and A. theophrasti, UAN combined with NIS or COC increased the rate of carfentrazone-ethyl absorption. Carfentrazone absorption in A. theophrasti 2 HAT was 70% when UAN was combined with NIS or COC compared to 40% with NIS or COC alone; however, 24 HAT, absorption with NIS and COC were similar to treatments with UAN. Carfentrazone-ethyl did not translocate from the treated leaf to other plant parts in Z. mays and only small amounts of radiolabeled product were detected in the rest of the shoots of A. theophrasti (5%) and G. max (12%). Herbicide metabolism in Z. mays and G. max was greater than in A. theophrasti. All three species converted carfentrazone-ethyl to its phytotoxic metabolite carfentrazone-chloropropionic acid; therefore, the parent molecule was considered to be the sum of the ethyl ester and its hydrolysis product. Estimated half-lives of carfentrazone in Z. mays, G. max and A. theophrasti were 1, 7, and 40 h, respectively. The rate of carfentrazone metabolism corresponded to plant sensitivity (sensitivity to carfentrazone: Z. mays<G. max<<A. theophrasti); however, rapid absorption and translocation of carfentrazone may reduce the tolerance of G. max.
Nomenclature: Carfentrazone-ethyl, ethyl a,2-dichloro-5-[4-(difluoromethyl)-4,5-dihydro-3-methyl-5-oxo-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl]-4-fluorobenzenepropanoate; carfentrazone-chloropropionic acid, 2-chloro-4-[2-chloro-4-fluoro-5-[4-(difluoromethyl)-4,5-dihydro-3-methyl-5-oxo-1-H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl]phenyl]propionic acid; Abutilon theophrasti Medic., velvetleaf ABUTH; Zea mays L. ‘Pioneer 3655’, corn; Glycine max (L.) Merr. ‘Conrad’, soybean.