Echinochloa oryzoides and E. phyllopogon have become the most serious weeds in California Oryza sativa since continuous flooding was used to suppress E. crus-galli. Continuous use of a limited number of available graminicides and an increasing number of control failures led to the investigation of herbicide resistance in E. oryzoides and E. phyllopogon. Greenhouse dose-response studies with postemergence (POST) applications of molinate, thiobencarb, fenoxaprop-ethyl, and bispyribac-sodium estimating GR50 (herbicide dose to inhibit growth by 50%) values suggested resistance to all herbicides in two E. phyllopogon accessions and to molinate and thiobencarb in one E. oryzoides accession when compared with susceptible E. phyllopogon and E. oryzoides controls, respectively. No resistance was detected in dose-response studies with propanil. Minimum and maximum ratios (R/S) of the GR50 values of resistant to susceptible E. phyllopogon plants (in two experiments involving two resistant accessions) were 7.8 and >13.3 for thiobencarb, 2.2 and 4.3 for molinate, 16.5 and 428.7 for fenoxaprop-ethyl, and 2.0 and 12.0 for bispyribac-sodium. Minimum and maximum E. oryzoides R/S ratios (average of two experiments) were 21.9 and 4.6 for thiobencarb and molinate, respectively. A resistant E. phyllopogon (one accession tested) and the susceptible control were killed by POST applications of glyphosate, glufosinate, and clomazone, and by a preemergence application of pendimethalin. Thus, the repeated use of the few available grass herbicides in the predominantly monocultured O. sativa of California has selected for herbicide resistance in E. oryzoides and E. phyllopogon. The introduction of herbicides with new mechanisms of action will be useful to manage herbicide-resistant E. oryzoides and E. phyllopogon. However, cross- and multiple resistance emphasize the need to integrate herbicide use with nonchemical means of weed management.
Nomenclature: Bispyribac-sodium, sodium 2,6-bis[(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)oxy]benzoate; clomazone; fenoxaprop-ethyl; glyphosate; glufosinate; molinate; pendimethalin; propanil; thiobencarb; Echinochloa oryzoides (Ard.) Fritsch ECHOR, early watergrass; Echinochloa phyllopogon (Stapf) Koss ECHPH, late watergrass; Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. var. crus-galli ECHCG, barnyardgrass; Oryza sativa L., rice.