Failure to control Xanthium strumarium with acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor herbicides has been reported in Iowa and surrounding states. Single-seed descent techniques were used to isolate three X. strumarium biotypes: CAM-10 from near Cambridge, Iowa; Colo-25 from near Colo, Iowa; and Ohio-1 from Fulton County, Ohio. Ohio-1 and Colo-25 were selected because of apparent resistance to imazethapyr, whereas CAM-10 was selected for observed sensitivity to imazethapyr. The biotypes were assayed in vitro with three different ALS inhibitor herbicides, and ALS activity was measured. The 50% inhibition values (I50) of ALS for imazethapyr were determined to be ninefold or higher for the Ohio-1 and Colo-25 biotypes compared to the CAM-10 biotype. The I50 for imazaquin was determined to be about ninefold higher for the Colo-25 biotype and sixfold higher for the Ohio-1 biotype when compared to the CAM-10 biotype. All biotypes were equally sensitive to chlorimuron ethyl. The resistance was due to a single dominant nuclear gene.
Nomenclature:Chlorimuron; imazethapyr; Xanthium strumarium L. XANST, common cocklebur.