Rapid detection methods were developed for discriminating between resistant (R) and susceptible (S) biotypes of Echinochloa colona to either propanil or fenoxaprop-P at all growth stages. In the pregerminated seed assay for fenoxaprop-P, seeds were placed on 1.0% agar containing a range of concentrations of herbicides and kept under humid conditions. For propanil, pregerminated seeds were placed on moist filter paper in the lid of a petri dish and, when one leaf had developed, the lid was inverted for 1 min into propanil solutions at a range of concentrations. For the fenoxaprop-P and propanil test, seedling length and fresh weight were measured after 1 wk. For juvenile plants with four-leaf to one-tiller, shoots and roots were trimmed and placed in 20-ml glass tubes containing 0.2% (wt/v) agar and a range of concentrations of herbicides. Shoot extension and weight were recorded after 7 d. Larger plants with several small tillers were also assayed by this method. Tillers were removed from larger plants and were evaluated as described for juvenile plants. At later growth stages from ear emergence to flowering, excised stem node segments (8 cm) were soaked in water to stimulate rooting. Rooted nodes were placed in 30-ml glass bottles containing 0.2% agar with a range of concentrations of herbicides, and the test was conducted as described for juvenile plants but with the final assessment of new shoot extension and weight being recorded after 10 d. Discrimination between R and S biotypes was possible on the basis of GR50 values for shoot length and fresh weight in all testing methods. With few exceptions, GR50 values for the length of new shoot were very similar to those for the new shoot fresh weight. We concluded that all testing methods in our study provided reliable and quick discrimination between biotypes for both propanil and fenoxaprop-P susceptibility, covering various growth stages from seed to flowering stage. Trimming plants before herbicide treatment gives a rapid method of discrimination by measuring not only newly grown shoot fresh weight but also shoot length.
Nomenclature: Propanil, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl; Echinochloa colona (L.) Link ECHCO, junglerice.