Understanding weed–crop interactions is critical in predicting crop yield loss, but it is also important to understand how these interactions affect weed productivity. Therefore, research was conducted to characterize the weed relative leaf area and weed relative volume of several giant foxtail cohorts in soybean, and to assess weed density and cohort emergence time, weed relative leaf area, and weed relative volume as predictors of giant foxtail shoot biomass and fecundity. Giant foxtail cohorts emerged at VE (emergence), VC (cotyledon), V1 (first node), and V3 (third node) soybean growth stages and were thinned to densities of 0, 4, 16, 36, and 64 plants m−2. Based on weed density and cohort emergence time, the maximum shoot biomass per square meter or the maximum fecundity per square meter differed between years. In contrast, shoot biomass or fecundity per plant, as weed density approached zero, and the rate at which shoot biomass or fecundity decreased exponentially, as time increased, were similar between years. Based on the weed relative leaf area, the cohort effect on giant foxtail shoot biomass differed between years, whereas the cohort effect on giant foxtail fecundity was similar between years. Maximum giant foxtail shoot biomass per square meter or fecundity per square meter differed between years when estimated from weed relative leaf area. Based on the weed relative volume, the cohort effect on giant foxtail shoot biomass per square meter or fecundity per square meter was similar between years, as was the maximum giant foxtail shoot biomass per square meter or fecundity per square meter. The temporal stability of weed relative volume, used to describe giant foxtail shoot biomass or fecundity, may aid in improving bioeconomic weed management models.
Nomenclature: Giant foxtail, Setaria faberi Herrm. SETFA; soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr. ‘Asgrow AG2101’.