The diversity of resistance among wild oat collected before and after commercial introduction of imazamethabenz, difenzoquat, diclofop, fenoxaprop-P, sethoxydim, and tralkoxydim was evaluated. Wild oat sampled in 1964 and 2000 from the Red River Valley of Minnesota and North Dakota were screened for resistance. Nearly 43% of the 1964 collections were susceptible (S) to all six herbicides, whereas only 9% were S by 2000. The frequency of resistance in 2000 compared with 1964 increased for all six herbicides, and 27 phenotype response groups to the six herbicides occurred in 2000 vs. 14 phenotype response groups for the 1964 collection. The proportion of resistant (R) plants increased faster for the aryloxyphenoxypropionate (APP) herbicides, diclofop and fenoxaprop-P, than for the cyclohexanedione (CHD) herbicides, sethoxydim and tralkoxydim. High diversity of resistance responses was observed in wild oat to acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase–inhibitor herbicides, suggesting that there may be multiple APP herbicide– or CHD herbicide–specific resistance mechanisms in addition to those that confer cross-resistance. The trend of resistance response generally indicates that increased exposure to herbicides in wild oat may confer resistance to newly introduced but unrelated herbicides.
Nomenclature: Wild oat, Avena fatua (L.) AVEFA; imazamethabenz; difenzoquat; diclofop; fenoxaprop-P; sethoxydim; tralkoxydim.