Common waterhemp, giant foxtail, and velvetleaf seed germination in response to temperature was studied with a two-way thermogradient plate. Seeds were maintained under dark and wet conditions at 4 C for 12 wk, and velvetleaf seeds were scarified before the experiments were conducted. The seeds were germinated at 25 different temperature treatments. Minimum and optimum temperatures for velvetleaf germination were approximately 8 and 24 C, respectively. Temperature alternation did not affect the germination of this species. The minimum germination temperature was 10 C for common waterhemp and 14 C for giant foxtail. The optimum germination of giant foxtail occurred at approximately 24 C, but common waterhemp optimum germination was variable depending on temperature alternation. Increased amplitude of the diurnal temperature alternation increased percent germination of these two species, and this was more evident at lower temperatures. In the case of common waterhemp, the temperature required to reach specific germination percentages was reduced by increasing the amplitude of the temperature alternation.
Nomenclature: Common waterhemp, Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) J.D. Sauer. synonymous Amaranthus rudis J.D. Sauer. AMATA; giant foxtail, Setaria faberi Herrm. SETFA; velvetleaf, Abutilon theophrasti Medicus. ABUTH.