Field experiments were conducted in central Iowa to determine the growth of common waterhemp emerging after postemergence herbicide applications in soybean. Common waterhemp survival declined as emergence was delayed in relation to soybean. Ninety percent of plants emerging at approximately the same time as soybean survived, whereas only 13% of plants emerging approximately 50 d after planting (DAP) survived to maturity. Biomass accumulation declined rapidly as emergence was delayed in relation to soybean. Delaying emergence from 14 to 28 DAP resulted in a 50 to 80% reduction in shoot biomass. Common waterhemp emerging 50 DAP produced only 1 to 10% of the biomass of plants emerging at the same time as soybean. Plants emerging with soybean produced approximately 300,000 to 2.3 million seeds plant−1 depending on the location. Fecundity of common waterhemp plants was closely related to biomass accumulation and declined rapidly with delayed emergence. Although common waterhemp emerging after the V4 stage of soybean (40 DAP) are unlikely to affect crop yield because of high mortality levels and reduced growth, these plants may contribute significant seeds to the soil seed bank.
Nomenclature: Common waterhemp, Amaranthus rudis Sauer AMATA; soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr.