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1 May 2004 Influence of adjuvants on disease development by Pleospora papaveracea on opium poppy (Papaver somniferum)
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Abstract

Adjuvant effects on disease severity caused by the bioherbicide P. papaveracea on opium poppy were evaluated. Tween 20, Tween 80, Triton X-100, Tactic, CelGard, and Keltrol inhibited appressorium formation but not conidial germination on detached leaves. The disease severity varied from 11 to 83% necrosis in field experiments involving eight adjuvants at various concentrations plus 1 × 106 conidia ml−1 or minus pathogen. The three best-performing adjuvants when combined with pathogen, Tactic (1%, v/v), Bond (1%, v/v), and Tween 20 (1%, v/v), were included along with Tween 20 (0.001%, v/v) in field experiments in 1998. Tween 20 (1%, v/v) plus pathogen (1 × 106 conidia ml−1) caused the most severe disease, averaging 68% necrosis within 2 wk of treatment. Overall, plots treated with adjuvant plus P. papaveracea had a 22% reduction in capsule weight per plot as compared to plots treated with the adjuvant alone. Tactic (1%, v/v), Silwet-L77 (0.1%, v/v), Tween 20 (1%, v/v), and Tween 20 (0.001%, v/v) were included in field experiments in 1999. The treatment with Tween 20 (1%, v/v) plus pathogen (2 × 106 conidia ml−1) caused severe disease, averaging 56% necrosis within 2 wk of treatment. In 1999 plots treated with adjuvant plus pathogen averaged a 27% reduction in capsule weight as compared with plots treated with the adjuvants alone. The inclusion of Tween 20 (1%, v/v) with P. papaveracea conidia greatly enhanced efficacy on opium poppy.

Nomenclature: Opium poppy, Papaver somniferum L. PAPSO; Pleospora papaveracea Sacc.

Bryan A. Bailey, Nichole R. O'Neill, and James D. Anderson "Influence of adjuvants on disease development by Pleospora papaveracea on opium poppy (Papaver somniferum)," Weed Science 52(3), 424-432, (1 May 2004). https://doi.org/10.1614/WS-03-017R1
Received: 23 January 2003; Accepted: 1 October 2003; Published: 1 May 2004
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