Numerous studies have quantified the developmental responses of wheat to vernalization, but its response compared to a weedy relative, jointed goatgrass, remains relatively unknown. Six paired jointed goatgrass collections gathered from Washington and Oregon fields, and winter and spring wheat, were grown in field studies to quantify yield and germination in response to vernalization. Monthly planting dates initiated in October and concluded in March were used to vary the vernalization durations for plants sown at three Oregon locations (Corvallis, Moro, and Pendleton) over two growing seasons. Minimum vernalization requirements to produce reproductive spikes were similar among plants of six jointed goatgrass collections. Jointed goatgrass collections grown at Corvallis required a minimum of 89 and 78 vernalization days (January 17, 2003 and January 22, 2004 sowing, respectively) to produce reproductive spikes, and plants grown at Moro required 60 vernalization days (March 3 and February 23) in both years, and 48 and 44 vernalization days (March 3 and February 24) were required by plants to produce spikes at Pendleton. Jointed goatgrass spikelet and winter wheat seed yield were positively influenced by vernalization days, experiment location, and year. The strength of the interactions among these main effects differed among jointed goatgrass collections and winter wheat. The effects of vernalization on jointed goatgrass yields and seed quality were more pronounced at Pendleton, OR, a location where jointed goatgrass has adapted, compared to Corvallis, OR, where it has not adapted. The minimum vernalization days required to produce germinable seed differed among jointed goatgrass collections, winter and spring wheat. There was not a selection of spring-adapted jointed goatgrass populations in the populations tested. Yet if spring temperatures are cool, minimum conditions for vernalization may be satisfied, and the benefits of planting spring crops to control jointed goatgrass would be reduced.
Nomenclature: Jointed goatgrass, Aegilops cylindrica Host AEGCY; winter wheat, Triticum aestivum L. ‘Madsen’; spring wheat, Triticum aestivum L., ‘Penawawa.’