Specific knowledge about the dormancy, germination, and emergence patterns of weed species aids the development of integrated management strategies. The after-ripening period for jointed goatgrass seed was quantified, and the effects of germination conditions and spikelet structures on jointed goatgrass seed germination were measured. As the duration of after-ripening increased, jointed goatgrass seed germinated earlier, at faster rates, and to greater final percentages compared to non–after-ripened seed. Both primary and secondary positioned seed within jointed goatgrass spikelets were nondormant after 16 wk after-ripening at 22 ± 2 C. Germination of dormant seed depended on incubation temperature and dark/light conditions. Sixty-seven percent of spikelets produced a radicle when exposed to low temperatures in the dark, and light at warm temperatures increased germination by 7%. The relationship between light and incubation temperature was similar also for germination of the primary positioned seed in nondormant spikelets; however, the magnitude of the effect increased. Light increased germination of seed incubated at warm temperatures by 18%. Coleoptile emergence was dependent on planting depth for three jointed goatgrass populations, winter wheat, and spring wheat. Under optimum conditions in the greenhouse, no planting depth selectively allowed wheat germination and emergence while preventing jointed goatgrass germination and emergence. Glume removal increased jointed goatgrass secondary positioned seed final germination percentage to 96%, increased the germination rate, and decreased the number of days required to reach 50% germination to 6 d. Glume removal also promoted germination of the primary seed within jointed goatgrass spikelets. Glume removal resulted in 80% of the spikelets having two coleoptiles, but did not alleviate dormancy completely in jointed goatgrass seed. Tillage and herbicide applications for jointed goatgrass control will be most effective in the fall when primary dormancy is lost, but before secondary dormancy is imposed.
Nomenclature: Jointed goatgrass, Aegilops cylindrica Host, AEGCY; wheat, Triticum aestivum L., TRZAW.