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1 September 2006 Altered weed reproduction and maternal effects under low‐nitrogen fertility
Kimberly D. Tungate, Michael G. Burton, David J. Susko, Shannon M. Sermons, Thomas W. Rufty
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The low-nitrogen status of highly weathered soils may offer a potential alternative for weed suppression in agricultural systems with N2-fixing crops. In this study, we used sicklepod as a model to evaluate weed response that might occur with managed reductions in nitrogen-soil fertility. A field study was conducted with the parental generation supplied 0, 112, 224, or 448 kg N ha−1. Decreased nitrogen fertility led to reduced shoot biomass, seed number, and total seed mass. Individual seed mass was lower, but seed % nitrogen was not affected. Analysis of seed-mass distribution confirmed that low parental fertility was associated with more small seeds as a proportion of total seeds produced. Additional experiments in hydroponics culture revealed slower growth rates of seedlings produced from small seeds when grown under low-nitrogen conditions. Competitiveness of plants from small (low nitrogen) and large (high nitrogen) seed classes was determined in a replacement-series experiment conducted in sand culture in a controlled environment at two densities and two levels of nitrogen nutrition. Plants produced from smaller seeds were less competitive in low-nitrogen fertility conditions, but plants from small and large seeds competed similarly when grown under high-nitrogen fertility. The results support the hypothesis that comprehensive management strategies to reduce nitrogen availability for weed growth in low-fertility conditions could decrease weed interference by decreasing growth and seed production of parental plants and through maternal effects that lower competitiveness of offspring.

Nomenclature: Sicklepod, Senna obtusifolia (L.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby CASOB.

Kimberly D. Tungate, Michael G. Burton, David J. Susko, Shannon M. Sermons, and Thomas W. Rufty "Altered weed reproduction and maternal effects under low‐nitrogen fertility," Weed Science 54(5), 847-853, (1 September 2006).
Received: 15 June 2005; Accepted: 1 May 2006; Published: 1 September 2006
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