Hairy nightshade is a common weed in potato rotations in the western United States. As a close relative of potato, hairy nightshade can host numerous potato nematodes, diseases, and insect pests. Hairy nightshade hosts three common parasitic nematodes of potato, Columbia and northern root-knot nematodes, and stubby root nematode. Tubers of a potato breeding line with roots that are resistant to Columbia root-knot nematode—race 1, were damaged when grown in the presence of hairy nightshade. The weed provided an alternate host for the nematode, which then allowed the nematode to infect susceptible tubers. Stubby root nematodes transmit tobacco rattle virus (TRV), the causal agent for corky ringspot disease (CRS) of potato. CRS disease was maintained in soil when hairy nightshade was present in rotation crops of alfalfa or Scotch spearmint that otherwise eliminated the disease. Hairy nightshade also is a host of potato leaf roll virus (PLRV), which is transmitted by green peach aphids (GPA). GPA preferentially land and readily reproduce on hairy nightshade. Aphid transmission of PLRV from hairy nightshade to potato was four times greater than the virus transmission rate from potato to potato. Integrated management of these potato nematodes, diseases, and insect pests also should include strategies to control hairy nightshade in potato and rotation crops.
Nomenclature: Columbia root-knot nematode—race 1, Meloidogyne chitwoodi Golden et al; green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer); hairy nightshade, Solanum sarrachoides Sendtner SOLSA; northern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood; stubby root nematode, Paratrichodorus allius Jensen; alfalfa Medicago sativa L.; potato, Solanum tuberosum L.; Scotch spearmint, Mentha cardiaca Baker.