The predictability of the spring emergence period of kochia is a potentially exploitable attribute that may be applied to weed management. The emergence timing of kochia was monitored, during the spring and summer of 2005 and 2006, in 12 farmed fields in the northern region of the Northern Great Plains (NGP) of North America. Kochia emergence began at 50 cumulative growing-degree days (GDD Tbase 0 C, starting January 1) and continued into late summer. The onset of kochia emergence occurred well before the emergence onset of other weed species common to this region. Fall soil samples revealed few kochia seeds remained in the seedbank. In growth room studies, kochia seed placed at the soil surface had greater emergence compared with seed burial to a 10 mm or greater depth. Kochia did not emerge from seed planted 80 mm deep; however, radical emergence was evident indicating fatal germination. Kochia should be controlled early in the growing season, and burying seed will greatly reduce future kochia populations.
Nomenclature: Kochia, Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. KCHSC.