Diclofop-resistant Italian ryegrass is a major weed problem in wheat production. This study aimed to determine the resistance pattern of diclofop-resistant Italian ryegrass accessions from the southern United States to the latest commercialized herbicides for wheat production, pinoxaden and mesosulfuron, and to other acetolactate synthase (ALS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors. Twenty-nine of 36 accessions were resistant to the commercial dose of diclofop. The majority (80%) of diclofop-resistant accessions were also resistant to clodinafop. Of 25 diclofop-resistant accessions, 5 were resistant to pinoxaden. All accessions tested were susceptible to the commercial dose of clethodim and sethoxydim. The cross-resistance pattern of diclofop-resistant Italian ryegrass to other ACCase inhibitors was 20% for pinoxaden and none with clethodim or sethoxydim. One accession was resistant to mesosulfuron but not to diclofop. This mesosulfuron-resistant accession was cross-resistant to sulfometuron but not to imazamox. All diclofop-resistant accessions tested were susceptible to ALS inhibitors, mesosulfuron, sulfometuron, and imazamox. Therefore, diclofop-resistant Italian ryegrass in Arkansas can be controlled with imazamox (in Clearfield wheat) and can mostly be controlled with mesosulfuron and pinoxaden. It could also be controlled by other selective grass herbicides in broadleaf crops.
Nomenclature: Clethodim; clodinafop; diclofop; imazamox; mesosulfuron; pinoxaden; sethoxydim; sulfometuron; Italian ryegrass, Lolium multiflorum Lam., wheat, Triticum aestivum L.