Morningglories are troublesome weeds in row crops and other agricultural areas throughout the United States. Plants of pitted morningglory, sharppod morningglory, and a fertile “hybrid” between pitted and sharppod morningglory (hybrid morningglory), were compared with cypressvine, ivyleaf, palmleaf, purple moonflower, red, and smallflower morningglories in greenhouse studies at Stoneville, MS. Plants from each of 76 accessions were studied for number of nodes to first internode elongation; stem color and pubescence; leaf area and dry weight of first four full expanded leaves; leaf blade pubescence on abaxial and adaxial surfaces and margins; leaf color, shape, and lobing; petiole length, color, and pubescence; sepal length, color, and pubescence; and corolla color, diameter, and length. Among these morningglories, the most diverse traits were pubescence and flower characteristics. Greatest morphological diversity was among hybrid morningglory accessions because characteristics were intermediate to pitted morningglory and sharppod morningglory accessions. Sharppod morningglory had five nodes to first internode elongation compared to three nodes in pitted and hybrid morningglory. Corolla color was white (90%) or white with faint pink veins (10%) in pitted morningglory, lavender (100%) in sharppod morningglory, and varied from pinkish lavender (45%), lavender (38%), white (12%), to white with pink veins (5%) in hybrid morningglory accessions. Pitted, red, and smallflower morningglory corolla diameters were not only smaller, but less variable in size than cypressvine, hybrid, ivyleaf, palmleaf, purple moonflower, and sharppod morningglories. Corolla diameter and lengths were most variable in sharppod morningglory accessions when compared to other morningglory accessions. The sepal tip shape was broader (broadly acute to obtuse) in palmleaf and sharppod than in hybrid, pitted, or other morningglories (acute to narrowly acute). In future studies, these morphological traits will be compared to determine if any are correlated with glyphosate sensitivity.
Nomenclature: Cypressvine morningglory, I. quamoclit L. IPOQU; hybrid morningglory, Ipomoea × leucantha Jacq.; ivyleaf morningglory, I. hederacea (L.) Jacq. IPOHE; palmleaf morningglory, I. wrightii Gray IPOWR; pitted morningglory, I. lacunosa L. IPOLA; purple moonflower, I. turbinata L. CLYMU; red morningglory, I. coccinea L. IPOCC; sharppod morningglory, I. cordatotriloba Dennst. IPOTC; smallflower morningglory, Jacquemontia tamnifolia (L.) Gresb. IAQTA.