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1 July 2010 Herbicides as Synergists for Mycoherbicides, and Vice Versa
Jonathan Gressel
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Except for a small number of cases in which biocontrol agents were introduced from the site of origin of a weed (classical biocontrol), there have been few cases where a pathogen was virulent enough to perform cost effectively in the field as a mycoherbicide. Mycoherbicides are typically weed species specific, so compatibility with herbicides used to control other weeds is often studied. There can be a synergy between mycoherbicides and herbicides at the field level due to overlapping weed spectra (such synergies are not discussed in depth herein). Two approaches have been used to ascertain whether there is synergy in controlling the target weed: (1) random screening with herbicides; (2) using herbicides as antimetabolites to inhibit specific pathways, enhancing virulence. Glyphosate is the most common herbicide to synergize mycoherbicides, possibly due to its dual function as an inhibitor of biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid phytoalexins by suppressing enolphosphate-shikimate phosphate synthase, or by suppressing callose production (by inhibiting callose synthase) as well as inhibiting other calcium-dependent pathways due to the calcium-chelating properties of glyphosate.

Jonathan Gressel "Herbicides as Synergists for Mycoherbicides, and Vice Versa," Weed Science 58(3), 324-328, (1 July 2010).
Received: 21 April 2009; Accepted: 1 May 2009; Published: 1 July 2010
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